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Overview Magnesium and vitamin D


You want 100-400 milligrams of Mg (of the element, not the compound) - you get a lot of Magnesium from greens
You want enough magnesium to maintain a serum 25(OH)D level of 50ng/mL

Vitamin D appears to consume Magnesium in at least two ways
  1) Increased Vitamin D builds bones, which depletes Magnesium
  2) Vitamin D synthesis requires Magnesium in 8 places
Having >400 milligrams of Mg as a single dose causes a laxative effect in many people.
Taking the dose two times per day helps but may not eliminate the laxative effect.
   Just as you do not consume all of your water or food for the day at one time,
   you should not consume all of your Magnesium for the day at one time
    Excessive food, water, Magnesium, etc., is too hard on the gut.
There is a controversy as to which form of Magnesium is best

  • Liquid form: Magnesium Chloride has good bioavailability and a low laxative effect.
    Can also be used topically on sore muscles
  • Pill form: Magnesium Citrate has a relatively more laxative effect than other forms
    Avoid Magnesium Oxide - consensus = very low bio-availability (not much better than placebo)
    Be careful that the supplement does not contain Calcium (most people need to reduce Ca intake)
  • Vitamin D Cofactors in a nutshell has a quick overview of Magnesium
  • Vitamin D and Magnesium category listing has 354 items along with related searches

Perspective of the importance of Vit D and co-factors to health
Importance to Health VDW10426

Page summary by CHAT-GPT of this page as of Sept 27, 2023

Summary ignores images, attachments, links

  • Magnesium is essential for the proper functioning of hundreds of enzymes, including those that convert vitamin D into its active form.
  • Most people are deficient in both magnesium and vitamin D.
  • Magnesium and vitamin D are synergistic, meaning they enhance each other's effectiveness.

Key Points:

  • Magnesium is needed for vitamin D to turn on calcium channels.
  • Many enzymes involved in vitamin D metabolism require magnesium.
  • Magnesium deficiency can lead to vitamin D resistance.
  • Magnesium and vitamin D should be taken together.
  • Magnesium deficiency reduces vitamin D effectiveness, and vitamin D deficiency can cause magnesium deficiency.

Magnesium and Vitamin D Interaction:

  • Magnesium activates vitamin D, which helps regulate calcium and phosphate homeostasis to influence bone and calcium metabolism.
  • Both nutrients have several other functions in the body.


  • Magnesium deficiency can lead to a series of health problems.
  • Symptoms of magnesium deficiency can be similar to those of vitamin D deficiency.


  • It's essential to maintain an appropriate balance between magnesium and vitamin D levels.
  • Overconsumption of one can lead to a deficiency in the other.

Summary of Overview - Magnesium by Perplexity AI March 2024

The webpage from VitaminDWiki provides an overview of the relationship between magnesium and vitamin D, emphasizing the importance of magnesium as a cofactor for vitamin D. It advises caution when choosing supplements, suggesting that most people should avoid supplements containing calcium as many need to reduce their calcium intake. The page includes a section titled "Vitamin D Cofactors in a nutshell," which offers a brief overview of magnesium's role in vitamin D metabolism. Additionally, there is a category listing on the website that features 346 items related to magnesium and vitamin D, along with related searches.

The page also highlights the significance of both vitamin D and its cofactors to overall health. It mentions that magnesium on its own can help with various health issues. Notably, as of January 2022, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows claims that magnesium can help with hypertension, indicating recognition of its health benefits

Magnesium by itself helps with various health problems

Magnesium and Hypertension - FDA allows claim as of Jan 2022

FDA Announces Qualified Health Claim for Magnesium and Reduced Risk of High Blood Pressure
The FDA responded to a health claim petition submitted on behalf of The Center for Magnesium Education and Research, LLC. - and will now allow:

  • “Inconsistent and inconclusive scientific evidence suggests that diets with adequate magnesium may reduce the risk of high blood pressure (hypertension), a condition associated with many factors.”
  • “Consuming diets with adequate magnesium may reduce the risk of high blood pressure (hypertension). However, the FDA has concluded that the evidence is inconsistent and inconclusive.”
  • “Some scientific evidence suggests that diets with adequate magnesium may reduce the risk of high blood pressure (hypertension), a condition associated with many factors. The FDA has concluded that the scientific evidence supporting this claim is inconsistent and not conclusive.”

FDA Approves Health Claim for Magnesium and High Blood Pressure GrassrootsHealth Jan 2022
FDA allows 2 specific Vitamin D and 2 Omega-3 health claims - 2019
42 page response letter by the FDA

The journal Magnesium Research published a number of studies under archives:

Dr. Dean has published a free 32-page guide on magnesium at http://www.nutritionalmagnesium.org

Magnesium deficiency is associated with poor mental health

huge web page
Magnesium and Mental Health  see  is.gd/VDMag

Reduce stress and anxiety with Magnesium - 100-page ebook June 2017

by Dr. Carol Dean (Ms. Magnesium)
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

National Library of Medicine effectiveness ratings for MAGNESIUM (with no comment on vitamin D)

dead link May 2022
The following is just a tiny amount of the information from the above link
Effective for...

  • Dyspepsia (heartburn or “sour stomach”) as an antacid. Various magnesium compounds are used. Magnesium hydroxide seems to work the fastest.
  • Use as a laxative for constipation or preparation of the bowel for surgical or diagnostic procedures.

Likely effective for...

  • Conditions that occur during pregnancy are called pre-eclampsia or eclampsia.
  • A type of irregular heartbeat is called torsades de pointes.
  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
  • Weak bones (osteoporosis).
  • Preventing type 2 diabetes in overweight, middle-aged women when magnesium is obtained from foods.
  • Diseases of heart valves (mitral valve prolapse).
  • High cholesterol.
  • Chest pain (angina) due to artery disease.
  • Kidney stones.
  • Hearing loss in people exposed to loud noise.
  • Metabolic syndrome (a condition that increases the risk for diabetes and heart disease).
  • Preventing stroke.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), when given by an injection (shot).
  • Fibromyalgia pain when used with malic acid.

Possibly Effective when given intravenously (by IV) by a healthcare provider for...

  • Cluster headaches
  • Migraine headaches.
  • Irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia).
  • Asthma attacks.
  • Nerve pain caused by cancer.
  • Pain after a hysterectomy.
  • A lung disease called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Helping to restart the heart.
  • Improving energy and endurance during athletic activity.
  • Cerebral palsy, when given in the vein of premature infants.
  • Heart attack.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Anxiety.
  • Restless leg syndrome.
  • High blood pressure (hypertension).
  • Pregnancy-related leg cramps.
  • Hayfever.
  • Lyme disease.
  • Multiple sclerosis (MS).
  • Premature labor.
  • Other conditions.

Magnesium 101 (2014)

http://gotmag.org/magnesium-deficiency-101/ has the following table for Sept 2014
Note: More recent information is at https://therootcauseprotocol.com/
Low magnesium and worse health problems

Mild Daily ChallengeGreater Daily ChallengeSevere Daily ChallengeLife Threatening Challenge
Stage 1Stage 2Stage 3Stage 4
FatigueAnxiety & panic attacksArteriosclerosisAlcoholism
ConstipationArthritisBlood clotsALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease)
Dizziness (vertigo)AsthmaBowel diseaseAlzheimer's
(excessive menstrual pain)
Attention Deficit DisorderCalcified mitral valve
(mitral valve prolapse)
Cancer (breast, colon, prostate)
Facial twitchesBackache, upper back: excess cortisolCFS/ME
(Chronic Fatigue Syndrome /
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis)
Cardiac fibrillation
Food cravings
(especially sugar, caffeine, and simple carbs)
Backache, lower back: EmotionalCeliac diseaseCongestive heart failure
HeadachesCystitisCerebral palsyEclampsia
Heart palpitationsEar infectionsChronic kidney diseaseEmphysema (COPD)
HiccupsGluten sensitivityConcussionMyocardial infarction
(high cholesterol, triglycerides)
HypoglycemiaHypertensionDiabetesParkinson’s disease
IrritabilityInsomniaEpilepsy/seizuresRenal failure
Loss of appetiteInsulin resistance
Endothelial dysfunction
(dysfunction of the lining of blood vessels)
Mood swingsMigrainesFailure to thriveStarvation
Muscle cramps, spasmsMultiple pregnancies
(exacerbates Magnesium deficiency)
Heart arrhythmiasStroke
NauseaNerve problemsHormonal imbalanceSudden cardiac death
NervousnessObesityHyperparathyroidismVentricular fibrillation
Poor memory/concentrationOsteopenia (precursor to osteoporosis)Hypothyroid 
(exacerbates Magnesium deficiency)
PMSKidney disease 
Raynaud’s syndromePoor concentrationLiver disease 
WeaknessPre-diabetes; insulin resistanceMetabolic Syndrome 
 TMJ disorderMitral valve prolapse
(Calcified mitral valve)
 Weight gain
(especially on the waist)
Multiple sclerosis 
  Obesity, severe 

They also have a free booklet on Mg concerns which you can download

7 Reasons to Get More Magnesium - GreenMedInfo May 2018

Full text

  • "Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in your body"
  • "The human genome project reveals that 3,751 human proteins have binding sites for magnesium."
  • "...this one essential mineral activates over 350 biochemical processes in the body"

1. Prevent Migraines.
2. Lower Heart Disease Mortality
3. Manage Diabetes
4. Relieve Symptoms of Fibromyalgia
5. Lower Risk of Colon Cancer
6. Build Strong Bones
7. Reduce Signs of Metabolic Syndrome

  • Note by VitaminDWiki - ALL 7 of the listed benefits of increased Magnesium also are benefits of increased Vitamin D
  • There is more than just synergy between the two, as Vitamin D cannot be synthesized in the absence of magnesium (see Venn diagram)

Magnesium is one of the treatments for Restless Legs

Natural Ways to Eliminate Restless Leg Syndrome Symptoms & Enjoy Long-Lasting Relief
By Leanne Purdie. Copyright 2013; the Ebook is attached at the bottom of this page


Web - Feb 2018
1. Anxiety
2. Asthma
3. Blood clots
4. Bowel disease
5. Calcium deficiency
6. Confusion
7. Constipation
8. Cystitis
9. Depression
10. Difficulty swallowing
11. Dizziness
12. Fatigue
13. Fertility/childbearing issues: Getting or staying pregnant, preeclampsia, preterm labor
14. High blood pressure
15. Heart issues
16. Hypertension
17. Hypoglycemia
18. Insomnia
19. Liver and kidney disease
20. Memory loss
21. Migraines
22. Muscle cramps
23. Nausea
24. Osteoporosis
25. Personality changes: often similar to symptoms of anxiety, depression, and other mood disorders
26. Potassium deficiency: may cause extreme thirst, fluid retention, and irritability
27. Raynaud’s syndrome: may cause cold fingers or toes,
   color changes in the skin due to temperature changes, and numbness in extremities
28. Respiratory difficulties
29. Seizures
30. Tooth decay
31. Tremors
32. Type II diabetes

Hot Flashes and Magnesium

1 Health Fellow: Magnesium reduced Hot Flashes in Breast Cancer Survivors July 2010
- - - - clip - - - -
A recent pilot study was presented at this year’s annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. The subject matter dealt with hot flashes that up 40% of breast cancer survivors experience. Specifically, researchers from Virginia Commonwealth University examined the applicability of magnesium supplements in this patient population. Over the course of 5 weeks, 29 breast cancer survivors who experienced at least 14 hot flashes per week were given 250 – 500 mg of magnesium oxide daily. The majority of the women (56%) found a >50% or greater reduction in their “hot flash score”.

The overall conclusion was that 76% of the female participants reported a >25% decline in hot flash frequency and severity.

The authors of this preliminary study stated that “Side effects and cost ($0.02/tablet) were minimal”. It’s also reassuring to know that a bigger, randomized, placebo-controlled trial is currently in the works that hope to establish exactly how magnesium diminishes hot flashes.
2 Trial: Magnesium cut number of hot flashes by 41% for menopause women with Breast Cancer
3 Magnesium supplements for menopausal hot flashes. 2009

Are You Getting Enough Magnesium? - AARP Feb 2018

Are You Getting Enough Magnesium?
"Roughly 70 to 80 percent of those older than 70 fail to meet their daily magnesium needs"

Magnesium supplements

% Magnesium element in supplements


Consumer Lab Review of Magnesium - as little as 2 cents per 200 mg of Mg

The cost to get an equivalent amount of magnesium ranged from just 2 cents to over $1.30!
''But quality and cost are not the only issues with magnesium: Some forms are better absorbed than others. '’

Magnesium Chloride

Image Amazom $8.50 2nd Edition 2011

Magnesium acetyl taurate best in rat study - 2019

Compounds in Hours: Which Magnesium Compound Works Best?
Biological Trace Element Research volume 187, pages128–136 (2019)Timeline (Bioavailability) of Magnesium
\Nazan Uysal, Servet Kizildag, Zeynep Yuce, Guven Guvendi, Sevim Kandis, Basar Koc, Aslı Karakilic, Ulas M. Camsari & Mehmet Ates

Magnesium is an element of great importance functioning because of its association with many cellular physiological functions. The magnesium content of foods is gradually decreasing due to food processing, and magnesium supplementation for healthy living has become increasingly popular. However, data is very limited on the bioavailability of various magnesium preparations. The aim of this study is to investigate the bioavailability of five different magnesium compounds (magnesium sulfate, magnesium oxide, magnesium acetyl taurate, magnesium citrate, and magnesium malate) in different tissues. Following a single dose of 400 mg/70 kg magnesium administration to Sprague Dawley rats, bioavailability was evaluated by examining time-dependent absorption, tissue penetration, and the effects on the behavior of the animals.
Pharmacokinetically, the area under the curve calculation is highest in the magnesium malate.
The magnesium acetyl taurate was found to have the second-highest area under the curve calculation. Magnesium acetyl taurate was rapidly absorbed, able to pass through to the brain easily, had the highest tissue concentration level in the brain, and was found to be associated with decreased anxiety indicators. Magnesium malate levels remained high for an extended period of time in the serum. The commonly prescribed dietary supplements magnesium oxide and magnesium citrate had the lowest bioavailability when compared to our control group. More research is needed to investigate the bioavailability of magnesium malate and acetyl taurate compounds and their effects on specific tissues and behavior.
 Download the PDF from Sci-Hub via VitaminDWiki

Citrate good, Oxide not better than placebo - RCT 2003

Mg citrate found more bioavailable than other Mg preparations in a randomized, double-blind study
Published data on the bioavailability of various Mg preparations is too fragmented and scanty to inform the proper choice of Mg preparation for clinical studies. In this study, the relative bioavailability of three preparations of Mg (amino-acid chelate, citrate, and oxide) was compared at a daily dose of 300 mg of elemental Mg in 46 healthy individuals. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel intervention of 60 days duration. Urine, blood, and saliva samples were taken at baseline, 24 h after the first Mg supplement was taken (acute‘ supplementation), and after 60 days of daily Mg consumption (chronic‘ supplementation). Results showed that supplementation of the organic forms of Mg (citrate and amino-acid chelate) showed greater absorption (P ± 0.033) at 60 days than MgO, as assessed by the 24-h urinary Mg excretion. Mg citrate led to the greatest mean serum Mg concentration compared with other treatments following both acute (P ± 0.026) and chronic (P ± 0.006) supplementation. Furthermore, although mean erythrocyte Mg concentration showed no differences among groups, chronic Mg citrate supplementation resulted in the greatest (P ± 0.027) mean salivary Mg concentration compared with all other treatments. Mg oxide supplementation resulted in no differences compared to placebo. We conclude that daily supplementation with Mg citrate shows superior bioavailability after 60 days of treatment when compared with other treatments studied.

Much more heart disease if the Calcium/Magnesium ratio is too high

George Eby

owned and funded by Paul Mason (Mr. Mason summarized the WHO conference in the book: Magnesium Miracle)
For the science, this excellent (no longer updated 2022?) website shows the diseases and gives you an opportunity to review the many papers on magnesium: www.mgwater.com
Diseases = Aging; Aggressive Behavior; Alcoholism; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Alzheimer's Disease; Arrhythmia; Asthma; Attention Deficit Disorder; Autism; Cancer; Cerebral Palsy; Cerebrovascular; Chemical Sensitivity; Chronic Fatigue; Cluster Headaches; Cocaine-related Stroke; Constipation; Cramps; Diabetes; Fluoride Toxicity; Head Injuries, Central Nervous System Injuries; Heart Disease, Heart Attack, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular Disease, etc.; HIV, AIDS; Hypertension; Kidney Stones; Magnesium Deficiency; Menopause; Migraine Headache; Mitral Valve Prolapse; Multiple Sclerosis; Nystagmus; Osteoporosis; Peripheral vascular disease; Pregnancy-related problems, Eclampsia; Premenstrual Syndrome, PMS; Psychiatric Disorders; Repetitive Strain Injury; Rheumatoid Arthritis; Sickle Cell Disease; SIDS; Sports-related problems; Stress; Stuttering; Tetanus; Tinnitus, Sound Sensitivity; TMJ; Toxic Shock; Violence

Magnesium Bioavailability

Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Magnesium - 2001

Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Magnesium After Administration of Magnesium Salts to Humans

Image Image

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki.

Magnesium roundup including bioavailability - Aug 2013 has the following
not much difference in bioavailability
from 2005 study

Magnesium may not be as available if have low stomach acid (seniors)

Magnesium may not be as available if have low stomach acid (seniors) has the following chart of stomach acid vs age

See also Magnesium roundup including bioavailability - Aug 2013

Pros and cons of various Magnesium compounds - Jan 2017

12 Things You Need to Know About Magnesium Deficiency

1. Milk of Magnesia (MoM) is magnesium hydroxide.
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Non-chelated forms of magnesium bound to an organic acid or fatty acid; poor absorption and bioavailability; 40-60% elemental magnesium
Uses & Effects: Stool-softening and antacid properties; should not be used long-term
Primary Target: Gut
Laxative Properties: High
2. Magnesium lactate
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Combined with lactic acid, about 12% elemental magnesium, better absorption than magnesium oxide
Uses & Effects: Most often used for digestive issues
Primary Target: Gut
Laxative Properties: High
3. Magnesium citrate
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Magnesium combined with citric acid; up to 16% elemental magnesium
Uses & Effects: Digestion; constipation, colon prepping for diagnostic procedures; better tolerated by some
Primary Target: General and gut
Laxative Properties: High
4. Magnesium carbonate
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: 19-45% elemental magnesium
Uses & Effects: Antacid properties, indigestion, acid reflux
Primary Target: Gut
Laxative Properties: High
5. Magnesium sulfate (Epsom salts, Milk of Magnesia)
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Varies
Uses & Effects: Oral form is not a safe source of dietary magnesium; transdermally (in a bath) has positive effects, especially on muscles and nerves
Primary Target: Gut and General
Laxative Properties: High orally, Extremely low transdermally
6. Magnesium chloride oil
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: An oily magnesium salt in liquid form, harvested from the Dead Sea; comes as a transdermal gel, oil, or spray
Uses & Effects: Good adjunct therapy to increase magnesium level beyond what can be achieved; may help muscle pain; useful for those who cannot tolerate oral forms
Primary Target: General
Laxative Properties: Extremely low
7. Magnesium chelate
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Multiple chelated forms bound to various amino acids; the kind found in foods naturally; highly absorbable
Uses & Effects: Effects vary depending on what chelates are used
Primary Target: General
Laxative Properties: Low
8. Magnesium malate
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Chelated form of magnesium with malic acid
Uses & Effects: Muscle fatigue; increases energy production and ATP synthesis; supports digestion (take with meals); manages PMS and headaches, pain, and fibromyalgia symptoms
Primary Target: Muscles
Laxative Properties: Low
9. Magnesium taurate
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Chelated form magnesium with taurine with good absorption and bioavailability
Uses & Effects: Calming effect; supports healthy heart function, suppresses palpitations and arrhythmias; migraine prevention
Primary Target: Heart
Laxative Properties: Low
10. Magnesium orotate
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Magnesium combined with orotic acid
Uses & Effects: Heart repair, DNA repair; enhances athletic performance
Primary Target: General
Laxative Properties: Moderate
11. Magnesium glycinate
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: Chelated form of magnesium with glycine, high absorption, and bioavailability
Uses & Effects: Alzheimer’s prevention and treatment; stress; concentration; depression, irritability, anxiety, other mood issues; insomnia
Primary Target: Brain
Laxative Properties: Low
12. Magnesium L-Threonate
Strength, Bioavailability, Special Qualities: A newer form of magnesium; high absorption and bioavailability, only form known to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (in rats as of 2018); excellent cell membrane penetration
Uses & Effects: Alzheimer’s prevention and treatment; stress; concentration; depression, irritability, anxiety, other mood issues; insomnia
Primary Target: Brain
Laxative Properties: Low

Bioavailability - from a forum

CLICK HERE for a forum discussion of Magnesium bioavailability
Magnesium Sulfate -> Elemental Mag = 10%, Bioavailability = ?
Magnesium Chloride -> Elemental Mag = 12%, Bioavailability = ?
Magnesium Oxide -> Elemental Mag = 60%, Bioavailability = 4%
Magnesium Carbonate -> Elemental Mag = 45%, Bioavailability = 30%
Magnesium Hydroxide -> Elemental Mag = 42%, Bioavailability = ?
Magnesium Citrate -> Elemental Mag = 16%, Bioavailability = 90%
Magnesium Lactate _> Elemental Mag = 12%, Bioavailability = 99%
Magnesium Glycinate -> Elemental Mag = 18%, Bioavailability = 80%
Magnesium Malate -> Elemental Mag = 6.5%, Bioavailability = ?
Magnesium Taurate -> Elemental Mag = 9%, Bioavailability = ?
__Another person on the same made the following calculation of elemental Mg
MgSO4 -> 20.19% (but did not consider that it has 7 glasses of water of hydration", so it's really MgSO4.7H2O)
MgCl2 -> 25.53%
MgO -> 60.30%
MgCO3 -> 28.83%
Mg(OH)2 -> 41.68%
Mg cit. -> 16.16%
Mg lac. -> 12.01%
Mg mal.-> 15.54%

Magnesium in the diet

Magnesium in the diet

2004 Journal of the American College of Nutrition released a study that compared the nutrient content of crops at that time with 1950 levels.
The average decline in Magnesium across fruits and vegetables studied was 21%
Spinach 10%; Corn 23; Carrots 35%; Collard Greens 84%

British Analysis of Mineral Content for Vegetables

from PDF, which is attached at the bottom of this page

Note: column on the left = content circa 1960, on the right = content circa 1994

US Govt study of Mineral Content for a century did not change much

Results for magnesium not only disagree with all of the other references but are inversely proportional to the above table.
from PDF, which is attached at the bottom of this page

The Scientific Evidence of Mineral Deficiency in Food

Many great references - such as 1940-2002 in UK Magnesium
Milk is down 21%; Parmesan cheese is down 70%

Cost of food to get 400 mg Magnesium


Excellent review of Magnesium Supplementation and Benefits at Consumer Labs - updated Feb 2023

Unfortunately, they do not sell their supplement reviews individually - must subscribe to all of them for $42/per year
They have a free demo period.
The price per 200 mg of Magnesium varied from $0.06 to $1.99 (not Mg Oxide -which is poorly adsorbed.
They feel Chloride is the best form of take a lot of Magnesium
Note: I (founder of VitaminDWiki) make my own Magnesium Chloride liquid from crystals and hot water - approximately $0.04 per 200 mg

Magnesium Deficiency

A VitaminDWiki 1987 article on Magnesium included some recent reasons for deficiency

"Refining and cooking may diminish the Mg content very substantially (18).
The refining of whole wheat to patent flour results in a loss of 80-96% (18, 66) of the Mg content, and the polishing of rice may remove > 80%.
The refining of sugar removes almost all the Mg (18,67) and
boiling vegetables may cause a Mg loss of > 50% (18).
There are observations that the Mg intake of humans has declined very sharply during the past few decades (68).
This may be due to the refining and preparing of food but also to the use of fertilizers with no Mg (53)."

Decrease in Magnesium during the past century.

Magnesium decline
Image is from this great Overview of Magneium Aug 2012

Magnesium levels fall with chemos, PPI - May 2023

Medications that may decrease magnesium levels include certain chemotherapy agents (cisplatin, carboplatin, doxorubicin (Doxil), nedaplatin (Aqupla), and others) (Komoda, J Gen Fam Med 2023), diuretics, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), which reduce stomach acid.
The FDA in 2011 specifically warned that PPIs may cause low serum magnesium levels if taken for prolonged periods of time (in most cases, longer than one year). Examples of PPIs are Nexium, Dexilant, Prilosec, Prevacid, Protonix, AcipHex, Vimovo, and Zegerid. Treatment of hypomagnesemia generally requires magnesium supplements. However, in approximately one-quarter of the cases reviewed, magnesium supplementation alone did not improve low serum magnesium levels, and the PPI had to be discontinued.

Reasons for Magnesium Deficiency include

  • Use of chemical fertilizers- which lack Magnesium
  • Refined wheat/rice - remove 80+%
  • Refined sugar - vs brown sugar, which has 30 mg of Magnesium per 100 gram
  • Boiling vegetables - might lose 50%
  • Gut absorption problems|2012].
  • Magnesium is removed from most city and bottled waters (as well as water softeners and reverse osmosis)
  • Calcium supplements - a probable Magnesium antagonist
  • Fluoridation might bind Magnesium in the body
  • Protein Pump Inhibitors (PPI, GERD) block Magnesium from being absorbed

Most people are Magnesium Deficient

from Most people not getting enough Vitamin D, Magnesium, and Vitamin E – Aug 2011
See also in vitaminDwiki: PTH failed to decrease with Vitamin D if overweight and had low Magnesium – Aug 2019

Reasons for Magnesium Deficiency - from Metabolics.com

Reasons for Magnesium Deficiency - Metabolics.com

  • The use of herbicides and pesticides that kill off worms and bacteria in the soil.
    This is taken up by plants in preference to Calcium and Magnesium.
  • Soil erosion as Magnesium is leached out by heavy rain.
  • Acid rain (as occurs in air pollution) contains Nitric Acid.
    In the soil, Nitric Acid reacts with Calcium and Magnesium to neutralize excess nitric acid.
    Eventually, Calcium and Magnesium become depleted, and the nitric acid reacts with Aluminium oxide in the soil.
    A reactive Aluminium builds up, replacing Calcium and Magnesium in the plant.
    Calcium is needed for cell wall strength, and Magnesium for chlorophyll for photosynthesis. So plants may grow taller and faster but are weak and lack chlorophyll.
  • Food processing decreases Magnesium.
    It is lost in grains during the milling and making of white flour. It is also lost in vegetables when they are boiled.
  • Fluoride in water and toothpaste binds to Magnesium, making it unavailable to the body.
    Fluoride is insoluble and replaces Magnesium in bone and cartilage.
  • Stress. Increased stress results in decreased stomach acid and decreased hydrochloric acid in the stomach resulting in decreased absorption of Magnesium.
    Commonly consumed antacids neutralize Hydrochloric acid, decreasing Magnesium absorption.
  • Magnesium absorption is altered by an unhealthy intestine, for example;
    IBS, leaky gut, gluten, and casein sensitivities, funguses & parasites, vitamin D deficiency, and the formation of Magnesium soaps in the stools as Magnesium binds to unabsorbed fats.
  • Some foods can block the absorption of Magnesium.
    High protein diets can decrease Magnesium absorption.
    Tannins in tea bind and remove minerals, including Magnesium.
    Oxalic acid in rhubarb, spinach, and chard and phytic acid in cereals and soy also block the absorption of Magnesium.
  • Junk foods, particularly sugary foods, all use up extra Magnesium.
  • Saturated and trans fats alter cell wall integrity, making it more rigid, which affects receptor site function and prevents nutrients from getting into or out of the cell.
  • Drugs - some drugs eliminate Magnesium. Antacids, antibiotics, and diuretics all cause Magnesium depletion.
    Large consumption of caffeine and alcohol causes depletion with their diuretic effect.
  • Hypokalaemia (low potassium levels) can increase urinary Magnesium loss.
  • Body size - the larger the body, the larger the Magnesium pool, then the lower the absorption from any source.

How much Magnesium

What's The RIGHT Magnesium Dosage For Optimal Health?

Kerri Knox at Easy Immune System Health

  • Type as well as the amount - in the forms of tablet, gel, bath flakes, etc., as well as time release
  • Mentions Angstrom Magnesium - which apparently does not cause bowel problems and can be taken sublingually
    • has an extreme taste - probably need to mask it in fruit juice. Also known as ionic magnesium
    • CLICK HERE for suppliers of Angstrom Magnesium via Google Shopping
  • Mentions an expensive ($39 for 8 ounces) transdermal Magnesium Gel which can be applied to the skin
  • See also her page on Magnesium on VitaminDWiki
  • Dr. Dean ,states “ Most magnesium experts agree that the current RDA is inadequate to prevent magnesium deficiency, but most men and women do not even get this minimal amount of magnesium.“

The upper limit is for supplements only and is less than the RDA

from: http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=nutrient&dbid=75
In 1997, the National Academy of Sciences set a tolerable upper limit (UL) on intake of magnesium at 350 milligrams per day for individuals 9 years and older.
This limit was restricted, however, to magnesium obtained from dietary supplements, and no upper limit was set on the intake of magnesium from food sources.

Magnesium Requirements

There are many factors that will vary our magnesium needs.

  • The more stress you are under, the more magnesium you need.
  • The more you use your brain in thinking, the more magnesium you use.
  • The more active you are, the more magnesium you use up.
  • The larger frame you are, the more magnesium you require.
  • Prescription drugs (and illegal drugs) and alcohol require extra magnesium
  • Your bones are a 2:1 calcium/magnesium ratio, while your brain is more like 2:1 Mg: Ca

clipped - - -
We also believe that 70-90% of the population is deficient in magnesium and has a lot of catching up to do (could take more than a year).
Once you have caught up, you can go to a maintenance level.

We recommend 150% of the RDA because we believe that

  • Most people are deficient
  • That the RDA is on the low side
  • Most of the magnesium is going to calcium absorption and neutralizing an acidic diet
  • Consuming only the RDA levels will not leave enough to combat insomnia, heart palpitations, muscle, aches and other symptoms

Magnesium tests

__Magnesium test of your blood $49 (not cell test) - (price checked May 2022)

Mg test differences by Grassroonthealth

Magnesium and Vitamin D

Magnesium and Vitamin D - similarities and differences


  • Widespread deficiency of both is due primarily to a single cause during the past century.
  • Little toxicity
  • One needs the other to work properly: being deficient in one can cause problems with the other.
  • Increasing either decreases the rates of many of the same diseases
  • Both have strong interactions with Calcium and Vitamin K2


  • Magnesium has no long-term storage in the body (not in fat) like Vitamin D does
  • Very noticeable reaction if take too much Magnesium but not vitamin D
  • The body can only absorb so much Magnesium per 6 hours – no limit with vitamin D
  • There are a variety of magnesium compounds – with different bioavailability and reactions
  • Increasing vitamin D without magnesium can be problematic but not vice versa

The chart shows 3 locations where low Magnesium decreases Vitamin D

Vitamin D reduced so low that Victorian age diseases are returning
Reductions in Vitamin D is.gd/VitDReductions

CLICK HERE for diseases that can be prevented/treated by Magnesium, Vitamin D, or BOTH
Magnesium and Vitamin D are synergistic; that is, increasing one helps the other. (Oct 2011 table)
 Magnesiumnot Magnesium
Vitamin D Magnesium or Vitamin D
Aging, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Alzheimer's Disease;
Asthma, Attention Deficit Disorder, Autism, Cancer, Cerebrovascular,
Chronic Fatigue, Diabetes, Hearing Loss, Heart Disease, Heart Attack, Atherosclerosis,
Cardiovascular Disease, HIV, AIDS; Hypertension; Kidney Stones,
Migraine Headache, Multiple Sclerosis, Obesity, Osteoporosis, Peripheral vascular disease;
Pregnancy-related problems, Rheumatoid Arthritis, Sports-related problems,
Vitamin D only
Acne, Allergy, Autoimmune, Bone, Breathing,
Celiac, Cognition, Colds and Flu, Cystic Fibrosis,
Dental, Fertility, hyperparathyroid, Immunity, Kidney,
Liver, Lupus, Osteoarthritis, Pain - chronic, Parkinson,
Psoriasis, Rickets, Strokes, Sarcoidosis, Thyroid, Parathyroid,
Tuberculosis, Vision, Hair, Skin, Sports
Not Vitamin DMagnesium only
Aggressive Behavior, Alcoholism, Arrhythmia, Cerebral Palsy,
Chemical Sensitivity, Cluster Headaches; Cocaine-related Stroke; Constipation,
Cramps, Fluoride Toxicity, Head Injuries, Central Nervous System Injuries,
Magnesium Deficiency; Menopause, Mitral Valve Prolapse,
Nystagmus, Psychiatric Disorders; Repetitive Strain Injury, Sickle Cell Disease, SIDS,
Stress, Stuttering, Tetanus; Tinnitus, Sound Sensitivity; TMJ; Toxic Shock; Violence

Vitamin D and Magnesium are similar Life Extension Mag - Dec 2016

Both Vitamin D and Magnesium
Extremely low-cost supplement
Recent steep decline
Some of the decline is due to changes in food production
skim milk, fertilizer, indoor animals, water filtration, roundup
A large % of world's human population is now deficient
Forms: Oral, topical, Injection,
Various Cancers
Various diseases increase as the nutrient decreases
Bones, Cardio, Diabetes, Obesity, hardened arteries
Provides both prevention and treatment
Calcium should be decreased
Tests are expensive and can be misleading
Limited by the poor kidney, poor gut
Seniors have less
Needed by most parts of the body
Influences many genes/enzymes
Many proofs and positive meta-analyses
Doctors are not aware, but vets are aware
Many forms and types are available
Does size varies with weight
Drugs reduce Magnesium and Vitamin D
Thousands of Binding sites for both
Just Vitamin D
Can start quickly - Loading dose (Adding some Magnesium should help)
Skin color is important
Air conditioning and staying indoors reduces vitamin D
Decreased by antibiotics
Just Magnesium
Need to start slowly
Bioavailability varies widely between types of Magnesium
Very noticeable reaction if take too much Magnesium,



Great summary by "Ms. Magnesium" (Dr. C Dean) March 2015

Magnesium: THE Ultimate Guide (Dr. Carolyn Dean)
Appears to summarize and link to all of her information - from books, papers, YouTube videos, and podcasts.
 Also available on VitaminDWiki in case it gets removed from the above link
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Consumer Lab has good reviews of many supplements: including Vitamin D, Vitamin K2, Calcium
Describes the benefits and warnings, and has an extensive analysis of 37 products
They agree that ReMag is just Magnesium Chloride.

See also VitaminDWiki

Mercola has many articles on Magnesium

Magnesium GlycinateA chelated form of magnesium that tends to provide effective levels of absorption and bioavailability.
Magnesium oxideA non-chelated form of magnesium bound to an organic acid or fatty acid. Contains up to 60% elemental magnesium and has stool-softening properties.
Magnesium chloride/Magnesium lactateContains only about 12% elemental magnesium but tends to have better absorption capabilities than magnesium oxide which has 5 times the magnesium.
Magnesium sulfate/Magnesium hydroxideThese are typically used as laxatives. Milk of Magnesia is an example of this type of magnesium. Since magnesium hydroxide can have up to 42% elemental magnesium, caution is required here not to take too much.
Magnesium carbonateThis form of magnesium has antacid properties and can contain from 29 to 45% elemental magnesium.
Magnesium taurateThis contains a combination of magnesium and taurine (an amino acid) that together may provide a calming effect on the body and mind.
Magnesium citrateThis is a form of magnesium with citric acid, which has laxative properties. This can contain up to 16% elemental magnesium.
Magnesium L-ThreonateThis newer, emerging type of magnesium supplement has shown great promise in absorption, as well as potential tissue and cell membrane penetration.
It is the fourth most abundant mineral in your bodyExists in over 300 different bodily enzymes
Is found primarily in your bones (half of your total body magnesium),Plays a role in your body’s detoxification processes*
Aids your energy metabolism and protein synthesis*Helps guide a large number of physiological functions*
Is required by glutathione (the “master antioxidant”) for synthesis*Is especially valuable for supporting your brain health*

VitaminDWiki Low cost to get vitamin D cofactors - including Magnesium

Mineral decrease from vegetables in the past century

Sums of averages of calcium, magnesium, and iron in cabbage, lettuce, tomatoes, and spinach.
Copied from Healing Property of Minerals - Paul Bergner

My notes of the book Magnesium Miracle by C. Dean 2007 – need to be confirmed.

Update Aug 2017 - 2nd edition of Magnesium Miracle book - 30% new material. $14

Paul Mason summarized the WHO 2006 conference on Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking Water as:
1) There is a consensus that most of the world is deficient
   Agreed that there are only 4 ways of increasing Magnesium and Calcium
2A) Have everyone on earth take pills – which has never been done before,
   unlikely on a global level. But practical on an individual level
2B) Advise everyone on Earth to get better food.
   Again unlikely globally but practical for individuals
2C) Add Calcium and Magnesium to tap water.
   Very wasteful, as 99% of tap water is not used for drinking
   Calcium can also build up as the scale
2D) Require bottlers to add optimal calcium and magnesium to bottled products
   (hoped that this would be done in 2008, but it looks like no action was taken)
    WHO 2009: mentions water softeners and reverse osmosis systems remove all Magnesium and Calcium. Also, reverse osmosis systems add Sodium.

Pg xvii Magnesium regulates more than 325 enzymes in the body and orchestrates electric current in the nerves (along with Calcium)

Pg xvii Dietary Magnesium had been 500 mg/day in 1900 and barely 200 mg in 1990

Pg xix has 21 diseases associated with Magnesium deficiency – some of which are also associated with Vitamin D deficiency (for example: Asthma, Diabetes, Fatigue, Heart Disease, hypertension, kidney disease, back pain, fibromyalgia, osteoporosis, and tooth decay). 68 Symptoms of Magnesium deficiency are listed in the section: Who is Deficient

The Body is Electric. There is 10,000X as much Magnesium in the cell as Calcium. And Magnesium limits how much Calcium can get into a cell (which is the reason for many of the diseases associated with Magnesium deficiency – the problem is not having too little Magnesium, but getting too much Calcium into cells), and this is controlled by Mg++-dependent ATP. This is why serum Ca++ is easy to determine (about 50% of that circulating is ionized). And that serum ionized component communicates with the parathyroid glands. Intracellular Ca++ is critical for the transmission of neuromuscular impulses but is immediately transported out of the cell afterward. On the other hand, only 1-2% of total magnesium is circulating, and less than 50% of that is ionized. This has only a very weak correlation with intracellular magnesium, 99% of which is bound, esp. to ADP and ATP. Mg++ is the only active form.
60-65% of Magnesium is in the bones Blood has only 1% of the Magnesium (vs 99% of the Calcium is in bones)

Dead Soil Potash which has been used for fertilizer since the 1930s, is more easily taken up by plants than magnesium or calcium. There typically is Magnesium in soils that have been used/abused for a long time. It also is leached out by rainwater, especially from acid rains. If soil is determined to be too acidic, lime is typically added, which again reduces the Magnesium.

Processed Food Lacks Magnesium Refining flour is 80% lost, and Polishing rice is 83% lost. Production of starch from corn 97% lost, Extraction of white sugar from molasses 99% lost

Fluoridated Water Banishes Magnesium Fluoride binds magnesium, making it insoluble, and it makes bones brittle.
Stomach Acid is Essential for Magnesium Absorption, A big problem for people such as the elderly who are deficient in stomach acid.

Absorption of Dietary Magnesium Is Hindered. A healthy body nicely sluffs off any excess magnesium. Our body was not evolved to store magnesium as it had always been readily available in foods. Problems with magnesium absorption include diseased intestines, low parathyroid hormone, amount of calcium, phosphorus, potassium (wonder about vitamin D), sodium, lactose, and iron. If take iron, take hours apart from when take magnesium.

Magnesium is blocked by certain foods, High protein, spinach, chard, and un-fermented soy, …
Drugs cause magnesium deficiency diuretics, bronchodilators, birth control pills, insulin, digitalis, insulin, tetracycline, Corticosteroids, Nicotine, cisplatin (chemotherapy)

Vitamin and Mineral Interactions with Magnesium “Sufficient vitamin D is necessary for the body to utilize magnesium” (wonder how much sufficient is)
Heart Attacks 7 clinical studies have shown that 5-10 grams of intravenous magnesium reduced the risk of death by 55% after an acute heart attack.
PMS was reduced with 400 mg of Magnesium. Recommend taking 50 mg of B6 to assist in magnesium absorption.
Chocolate craving “is a sure sign” of magnesium deficiency. Chocolate has the most magnesium of any food.
Magnesium is just as important as calcium to prevent and treat osteoporosis.
Magnesium keeps calcium dissolved in the blood so it will not form kidney stones.
Magnesium deficiency is common in chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia sufferers.
Magnesium deficiency may be an independent predictor of diabetes
Diabetics both need more magnesium and lose more than most people.
Magnesium acts as a natural statin
Magnesium reduces lactic acid, which causes post-exercise pain
Magnesium is lost during exercise
Magnesium deficiency may cause sudden cardiac death in healthy athletes
Magnesium and calcium deficiency may be a cause of growing pains in children
Magnesium deficiency can produce symptoms of anxiety or depression

The author takes about 7 pages to describe Magnesium tests. Apparently, very little of the body’s Magnesium is in the blood serum, and it is tightly regulated – except that when under stress, the body adds more Magnesium to the blood. It appears that tests for Magnesium which test the serum, are misleading, and white and red blood cell tests are an OK indication of blood in the cells of the body unless the body is under stress – such as an asthma attack. A better test is an EXATest – which measures the amount of Magnesium in the mouth. The best test is a “blood ionized magnesium test,” which, at the time of the book, was available only to researchers.
– – – – –

Pico-Ionic Magnesium Bioavailability (claimed)= 100% with no intestinal upset {Update Fall 2012}
4 ml per day, no laxative effect even if have IBS-diarrhea, Crohn’s, or colitis, $30

Magnesium L-Threonate – perhaps more bioavailable – Jan 2012

Have not seen ANY human studies of L-Threonate as of Nov 2018 - all mouse studies

Magnesium compounds have similar bioavailability - 2005

Study of magnesium bioavailability from ten organic and inorganic Mg salts in Mg-depleted rats using a stable isotope approach
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Magnesium in water is associated with a reduction in stroke

100 mg more Magnesium in water associated with 8 percent reduction in stroke – Feb 2012
Independent evidence shows that Vitamin D and Magnesium both reduce strokes.
Expect that they would do well together - perhaps more than 2X the benefit.

Magnesium online resource center

Magnesium in health • In a few words
Magnesium in biochemistry • a vital necessity, • magnesium’s effect, • magnesium and women, • magnesium and men, Magnesium in medicine. • Ocean Frost
Magnesium compounds • magnesium bromide, • magnesium carbonate, • magnesium chloride, • magnesium citrate, • magnesium hydroxide, • magnesium oxide, • magnesium phosphate, • magnesium sulphate
Magnesium in water • magnesium in drinking water, • magnesium in hard water
Magnesium in food • dietary requirements, • diets and diabetes, • health risks, • magnesium deficiency, • recommended amounts, • supplements
Articles • aging, • aggressive behavior, • alcoholism, • arrhythmia, • asthma, • autism, • cancer, • cramps
• diabetes, • heart-related, • hypertension, • kidney-stones, • menopause, • migraine-headache, • osteoporosis
• sport-related, • stress, • tetanus, • toxic-shock, • violence
General conclusions

Magnesium Interactions

Magnesium mind map  at is.gd/VDMag
From Transdermal Magnesium (Ancient Minerals) Dec 2012 - link for sale 2022

The only difference between chlorophyll and hemoglobin is that Magnesium is in the center instead of Iron

see  Overview of Magnesium http://is.gd/VDMag

3,751 magnesium binding sites on human proteins GreenMedInfo Dec 2012

See also web

  • Magnesium: Biochemistry, Nutrition, Detection, and Social Impact of Diseases Linked to Its Deficiency - March 2021
  • Magnesium in Infectious Diseases in Older People - Jan 2021
  • The Role of Magnesium in the Pathogenesis of Metabolic Disorders
  • Vitamin D, Magnesium and Their Interactions: A Review - Sept 2021
  • Magnesium and Microelements in Older Persons 168 pages 2021 FREE PDF
  • Learn More About How Important Magnesium Is 2005
    "For example, magnesium was first shown to be of value in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias in 1935."
    " More than seventy years later, there are now numerous double-blind studies showing magnesium to be of benefit for many types of arrhythmias including
      atrial fibrillation, ventricular premature contractions, ventricular tachycardia, and severe ventricular arrhythmias"
    "The arrhythmia burden of the patient with CKD is high, with the single greatest contributor to mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) being sudden cardiac death (SCD)"
  • Magnesium – its role in CKD. Nefrologia, May 2013, full text online
    Magnesium for treatment of hyperphosphataemia in patients with chronic kidney disease
  • Arrhythmias Life Extension date unknown - perhaps 2011
    "Food, drugs, and medications. Coffee, tea, chocolate (Dr. Dean says chocolate has the highest magnesium content of all, and a chocolate craving clearly indicates magnesium deficiency),
  • red wine, or simply overeating may cause rapid heartbeats that may be frightening when felt but are rarely serious"
    "Both magnesium and potassium are intricately involved in the heart’s electrical stability (Cybulski J et al. 2004); consequently, maintaining normal functional blood levels and ratios of each is important"
  • Is Magnesium Toxic? No! Dr. Carolyn Dean on contraindications (when to not take Magnesium) Dec 2012
    Kidney failure, Myasthenia gravis, Excessively slow heart rate, Bowel obstruction
  • Nutrional Magnesium Association Which had the following coverage

Image Image Image Image

VitaminDWiki - Magnesium is needed by Vitamin D in 8 places - 2013 chart

http://is.gd/MgVitaminD 2013

Infographic by Ontario Health


Magnesium Reduces Diabetes Risk by 53% Report on a 2013 study

Notes on what needs to be made into a summary/introduction (May 2022)

Summarize Mg: The body knows how to get rid of too much at one time,

  • rare gene problems causing loss of Magnesium

Many forms – vastly different amounts get into the body
important to 20+ health conditions – such as bone
Can also get Mg through the skin: Epson Salt foot bath, MgCl in DMSO
Far less Mg in food in the past 40 years
Many drugs and chemicals also reduce Magnesium in the body
Suspect also that need more Mg as have more Vitamin D
Increase Mg to at least 500, decrease Ca to <500 – perhaps zero?
Magnesium Chloride – pill, liquid, cream
Pico Mg – apparently no side effects 48 of 300 mg for $30
vs. 32 of 300 for $18 Mg Chloride
From Amazon
$.42 per 200 mg elemental Mg as Dr. Dean's Remag
$.08 per 200 mg elemental Mg as magnesium malate
$15 for 120 tabs of 75mg elemental Mg as MgCl2 or $.333 per 200 mg elemental Mg (as MgCl2)
24mg Mg/70 Mg Cl2 = ~25% Mg
$16 for 454 gm (a pound of MgCl2) or $16 for 116 gm elemental Mg++
(200 mg/116 gm) x $16 = $.0276 per 200 mg Mg as MgCl2 + cost of the veggie capsule ($7/100 or 7 cents v $17/1000 or 2 cents)

Mg vs. Fe = Chlorophyll vs. Hemoglobin
Mg/Heart analysis
More people are deficient? many similar recent reasons,
Widespread health, Deficiency not associated with a specific problem
Mag decreased: furt (see chart in Mag page), refined foods,
high-fat diet, salt, less hard water, transdermal
Calcium supplementation, boiling veg, coffee, diuretics,*****************
impaired absorption such as Crohn's disease, unhealthy kidney
diabetes, 30% to 60% of alcoholics, fluoridation?
magnesium absorption decreases and +renal excretion in seniors
Potash is more easily taken up by plants than mag or calcium.
Mg overdose – only if dialysis (Kidney not working)
Mg: Pico, attach PDF, 100% – nothing for a laxative,
just 1/4 teaspoon twice a day – for 14 days
http://www.amazon.com/Invisible-Minerals-Magnesium-Pico-Ionic-ebook/dp/B009V2ZJZ4 $4.00
Pico: The Pico-Ionic form is 50,000 ppm and comes in 8oz. bottles at an average daily dosage of 250mg per 4mls (1 tsp = 5 ml)
http://www.amazon.com/Liquid-Ionic-Minerals-Magnesium-250mg/dp/B005PFK3YS/ref=pd_sbs_hpc_1 half price
Liguid Magnesium from Mother Earth Minerals is extremely diluted and should be ignored
only 10 milligrams of Mg per teaspoon.
Candida may interfere with the absorption of Magnesium in the gut
Comment from the Web March 2015
Dr. Dean indicates that leaky gut syndrome, strongly associated with Candida overgrowth, inhibits magnesium absorption.

Note: Water filters that use reverse osmosis eliminate all Magnesium and Iodine ions

Extensive Overview of Magnesium at Pauling Institute - updated Nov 2018

Summary points (without hyperlinks)

  • Magnesium is an essential mineral and a cofactor for hundreds of enzymes. Magnesium is involved in many physiologic pathways, including energy production, nucleic acid and protein synthesis, ion transport, and cell signaling, and also has structural functions. (More information)
  • Severe magnesium deficiency can impede vitamin D and calcium homeostasis. Certain individuals are more susceptible to magnesium deficiency, especially those with gastrointestinal or renal disorders, those suffering from chronic alcoholism, and older people. (More information)
  • Inadequate dietary intakes and/or low serum concentrations of magnesium have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and metabolic disorders, including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Preliminary studies have shown that magnesium improved insulin sensitivity in individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Randomized controlled trials have also investigated the role of magnesium supplementation in the prevention of complications following stroke or heart surgery. (More information)
  • Magnesium sulfate is used in obstetric care for the prevention of seizures in pregnant women with preeclampsia or eclampsia. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials also support the role of magnesium in preventing brain damage in premature infants. (More information)
  • The use of magnesium supplementation is currently being explored in the management of various conditions, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, asthma, and pain. (More information)
  • About half of the US adult population may have insufficient magnesium intake to support nutritional adequacy. Dietary sources rich in magnesium include green leafy vegetables, unrefined grains, legumes, beans, and nuts. (More information)
  • The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for supplemental magnesium is 350 mg/day. Excessive intake of supplemental magnesium can result in adverse effects, especially in individuals with impaired kidney functions. (More information)
  • Magnesium plays an important role in the structure and function of the human body. The adult human body contains about 25 grams (g) of magnesium. About 50 to 60% of all the magnesium in the body is found in the skeleton, and the remainder is found in soft tissue, primarily in muscle. Magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation after potassium. Blood contains less than 1% of total body magnesium. Only the free, ionized form of magnesium (Mg2+) is physiologically active. Protein-bound and chelated magnesium serve to buffer the pool of free, ionized magnesium (1).

It appears that ALL forms of Magnesium cross the blood-brain barrier

Magnesium Crosses the BBB Carole Dean March 2019 Many references

Overview of Transdermal/Topical Magnesium Chloride - 2017

https://naturalcalm.ca/guide-to-transdermal-magnesium/ Table of Contents_
What Do We Mean By Transdermal Magnesium?
What Is Magnesium Chloride?
Is Magnesium Chloride A Natural Product?
Who Needs Magnesium?
Why Choose Transdermal Magnesium?
Should I Use Topical Magnesium, Oral Magnesium, Or Both?
How Should I Use Transdermal Magnesium?
How Much Magnesium Chloride Should I Use?
How Much Topical Magnesium Can I Use with My Children?
When Should I Use Transdermal Magnesium?
How Much is Really Absorbed Through the Skin?
Is Transdermal Magnesium as Absorbable as Magnesium Taken Orally?
What is the Difference Between Epsom Salts and Transdermal Magnesium Chloride

Magnesium is associated with many other VitaminDWiki categories

Omega-3 33,  Diabetes 27,  Vitamin K 27,  Calcium 26,  Virus 25,  Zinc 24,  Cardiovascular 17,  Bone - Health 15,  Vitamin B12 15,  Iron 14,  Depression 14,  Supplement 12,  Vitamin C 11,  Obesity 11,  Hypertension 11,  Headache 10,  Boron 10,  Pregnancy 10,  Metabolic Syndrome 9,  Intervention 9,  Mortality and D 8,  Iodine 8,  Seniors 8,  Deficiency of Vitamin D 8,  Books,   videos on Vitamin D 7,  Pain - chronic 7,  Resveratrol 7,  Interactions with Vitamin D 6,  Vitamin D and Vitamin A 6,  Cognitive 6,  Falls and Fractures 5,  Trauma and surgery 5,  Kidney 5,  Women 5,  Osteoporosis 4,  Breathing 4,  Infant-Child 4,  ADHD 4,  Cancer - Breast 4,  Cancer - Colon 4,  Predict Vitamin D 4,  Associations 4,  Off Topic 4,  Curcumin 4 (Nov 2023)

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Overview Magnesium and vitamin D        
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17639 Mg T1.jpg admin 21 May, 2022 44.63 Kb 4759
17638 Mg speed sci-hub.pdf admin 21 May, 2022 1.33 Mb 599
17572 bio 2001 T1B.jpg admin 08 May, 2022 137.22 Kb 4945
17571 bio 2001 T1A.jpg admin 08 May, 2022 140.89 Kb 5216
16892 FDA-Response-Petition-Qualified-Health-Claim-Magnesium-Reduced-Risk-High-Blood-Pressure.pdf admin 17 Jan, 2022 567.99 Kb 913
10902 Mg 2 week rats.jpg admin 24 Nov, 2018 117.52 Kb 29384
10901 magnesium bioavailability 2005.pdf admin 24 Nov, 2018 73.23 Kb 2290
8125 magnesium-deficient-anxiety.pdf admin 23 Jun, 2017 1.33 Mb 2411
5160 Mg cost for 400 mg.jpg admin 12 Mar, 2015 41.62 Kb 79767
5159 Mg 54.jpg admin 12 Mar, 2015 55.76 Kb 14851
5121 Mg bioavailability 2003.jpg admin 04 Mar, 2015 44.62 Kb 76704
5117 Mg Dean March 2015.pdf admin 04 Mar, 2015 3.98 Mb 10588
5112 Mg content.jpg admin 02 Mar, 2015 46.77 Kb 82916
4698 Bioavailability- of Mg.pdf admin 08 Dec, 2014 1.89 Mb 7230
4697 Mg T1B.jpg admin 08 Dec, 2014 35.82 Kb 76265
4696 Mg T1A.jpg admin 08 Dec, 2014 36.25 Kb 78843
4691 CaMg ratio vs heart disease.jpg admin 07 Dec, 2014 44.92 Kb 81514
4440 Transdermal Mg book Nov 2013.jpg admin 01 Oct, 2014 24.71 Kb 78439
3894 Magnesium-Infographic.jpg admin 12 May, 2014 190.66 Kb 96543
3436 Euro Upper limit Magnesium 2001 - based on Diarrhea.pdf admin 23 Dec, 2013 71.83 Kb 4203
3288 FixRestlessLegsEbook.pdf admin 17 Nov, 2013 677.71 Kb 4991
1359 Transdermal Magnesium.jpg admin 23 May, 2012 10.52 Kb 109738
1356 foodsupply1909-2000.pdf admin 21 May, 2012 653.92 Kb 2869
1355 Magnesium in food supply.jpg admin 21 May, 2012 16.67 Kb 110466
1354 Historical Mineral Content.jpg admin 21 May, 2012 17.76 Kb 122783
1353 Historical Minearal content.pdf admin 21 May, 2012 35.64 Kb 2210
585 Mineral decrease from vegetables.png admin 27 Jun, 2011 56.63 Kb 114324
287 Mag - research.gif admin 09 Nov, 2010 10.47 Kb 111109
286 Mag - news.gif admin 09 Nov, 2010 12.25 Kb 111798
285 Mag - health.gif admin 09 Nov, 2010 8.04 Kb 111385
284 Mag - expert articles.gif admin 09 Nov, 2010 13.66 Kb 111733
210 Magnesuim meracle pg 214.gif admin 04 Oct, 2010 19.32 Kb 108395