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Air Pollution reduces Vitamin D

Summary: Air pollution and vitamin D:

  1. Pollution reduces the amount of time that people are outdoors
  2. Pollution attenuates the amount of UVB getting to the skin (by only a few percent)
  3. Pollution is often associated with hot temperatures, which is another reason to stay indoors
  4. The body fights the resulting Irritation/Inflammation of organs with vitamin D
  5. Vitamin D supplementation helps the body fight the effects of pollution
    • Inhaled vitamin D might turn out to be especially good form as it goes directly to the lungs


See VitaminDWiki


Decrease in UVB: ratio of polluted sky in Tokyo vs clear sky in New Zealand
Note: Tokyo is much closer to equator, so should have much more UVB than NZ
Note: You can ignore the blue = winter line
Image


Air pollution, environmental chemicals, and smoking may trigger vitamin D deficiency: Evidence and potential mechanisms - Jan 2019

Environ Int. 2019 Jan;122:67-90. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.11.052. Epub 2018 Nov 30.
Mousavi SE1, Amini H2, Heydarpour P3, Amini Chermahini F4, Godderis L5.

Beyond vitamin D (VD) effect on bone homeostasis, numerous physiological functions in human health have been described for this versatile prohormone. In 2016, 95% of the world's population lived in areas where annual mean ambient particulate matter (<2.5 μm) levels exceeded the World Health Organization guideline value (Shaddick et al., 2018). On the other hand, industries disperse thousands of chemicals continually into the environment. Further, considerable fraction of populations are exposed to tobacco smoke. All of these may disrupt biochemical pathways and cause detrimental consequences, such as VD deficiency (VDD). In spite of the remarkable number of studies conducted on the role of some of the above mentioned exposures on VDD, the literature suffers from two main shortcomings: (1) an overview of the impacts of environmental exposures on the levels of main VD metabolites, and (2) credible engaged mechanisms in VDD because of those exposures. To summarize explanations for these unclear topics, we conducted the present review, using relevant keywords in the PubMed database, to investigate the adverse effects of exposure to air pollution, some environmental chemicals, and smoking on the VD metabolism, and incorporate relevant potential pathways disrupting VD endocrine system (VDES) leading to VDD. Air pollution may lead to the reduction of VD cutaneous production either directly by blocking ultraviolet B photons or indirectly by decreasing outdoor activity. Heavy metals may reduce VD serum levels by increasing renal tubular dysfunction, as well as downregulating the transcription of cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidases (CYPs). Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may inhibit the activity and expression of CYPs, and indirectly cause VDD through weight gain and dysregulation of thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone, and calcium homeostasis. Smoking through several pathways decreases serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels, VD intake from diet, and the cutaneous production of VD through skin aging. In summary, disturbance in the cutaneous production of cholecalciferol, decreased intestinal intake of VD, the modulation of genes involved in VD homeostasis, and decreased local production of calcitriol in target tissues are the most likely mechanisms that involve in decreasing the serum VD levels.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Image

Image


Air pollution, environmental chemicals, and smoking may trigger vitamin D deficiency: Evidence and potential mechanisms - Feb 2019

Environment International https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.11.052
Sayed Esmaeil Mousaviab Heresh Aminicde Pouria Heydarpourf Fatemeh Amini Chermahinig Lode Godderishi
Highlights

  • Air pollution may lead to vitamin D deficiency (VDD) directly or indirectly.
  • Heavy metals may lead to VDD by increasing renal tubular dysfunction and downregulating the transcription of CYPs.
  • Endocrine-disrupting chemicals may directly inhibit the activity and expression of CYPs and through indirect pathways.
  • Smoking causes VDD through several pathways.

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Beyond vitamin D (VD) effect on bone homeostasis, numerous physiological functions in human health have been described for this versatile prohormone. In 2016, 95% of the world's population lived in areas where annual mean ambient particulate matter (<2.5 μm) levels exceeded the World Health Organization guideline value (Shaddick et al., 2018). On the other hand, industries disperse thousands of chemicals continually into the environment. Further, considerable fraction of populations are exposed to tobacco smoke. All of these may disrupt biochemical pathways and cause detrimental consequences, such as VD deficiency (VDD). In spite of the remarkable number of studies conducted on the role of some of the above mentioned exposures on VDD, the literature suffers from two main shortcomings:

  • (1) an overview of the impacts of environmental exposures on the levels of main VD metabolites, and
  • (2) credible engaged mechanisms in VDD because of those exposures.

To summarize explanations for these unclear topics, we conducted the present review, using relevant keywords in the PubMed database, to investigate the adverse effects of exposure to air pollution, some environmental chemicals, and smoking on the VD metabolism, and incorporate relevant potential pathways disrupting VD endocrine system (VDES) leading to VDD.
Air pollution may lead to the reduction of VD cutaneous production either directly by blocking ultraviolet B photons or indirectly by decreasing outdoor activity.
Heavy metals may reduce VD serum levels by increasing renal tubular dysfunction, as well as downregulating the transcription of cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidases (CYPs). Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may inhibit the activity and expression of CYPs, and indirectly cause VDD through weight gain and dysregulation of thyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone, and calcium homeostasis.
Smoking through several pathways decreases serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D levels, VD intake from diet, and the cutaneous production of VD through skin aging.
In summary,

  • disturbance in the cutaneous production of cholecalciferol,
  • decreased intestinal intake of VD,
  • the modulation of genes involved in VD homeostasis, and
  • decreased local production of calcitriol in target tissues are the most likely mechanisms that involve in decreasing the serum VD levels.

Vitamin D reduces air polution cell damage by autophagy (disassemble the damaged cells) - Jan 2019

Vitamin D protects against particles-caused lung injury through induction of autophagy in an Nrf2-dependent manner
Environ Toxicol. 2019 Jan 30. doi: 10.1002/tox.22726.
Tao S1,2, Zhang H2, Xue L2, Jiang X1, Wang H1, Li B2, Tian H2, Zhang Z2.
1 Department of Endocrinology and Nephrology, Chongqing University Central Hospital, Chongqing Emergency Medical Center, Chongqing, China.
2 Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Preventive and Translational Medicine for Geriatric Disease, School of Public Health, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Fine particulate matter is a well-known air pollutant threatening public health. Studies have confirmed long-term exposure to the particles could decrease the pulmonary function, induce asthma exacerbation, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as increase the incidence and mortality of lung cancer. A clinical study has explored that the prevalence and risks of vitamin D (VD) deficiency in various chronic disease and toxins induced tissue damage. Our current study aimed to explore the mechanism and further therapeutic potential of VD administration to ameliorate fine particles exposure induced pulmonary damage in vivo and in vitro. To elucidate the effects and mechanisms of VD in particles-induced pulmonary damage, a murine model was established with fine particles intratracheal instillation along with VD intramuscular injection. Our study demonstrated that treatment with VD attenuated particles-induced pulmonary damage and promoted tissue repair by repressing of TGFβ1 signaling pathway and upregulation of MMP9 expression. VD treatment could also regulate the autophagy-related signals along with activation of Nrf2 transcription factor. Furthermore, the results from the in vitro study demonstrated that VD protected against particles-induced cells' damage through the induction of autophagy in an Nrf2-dependent manner. VD treatment caused the degradation of P62 and its bound Keap1, which decreased the Nrf2 ubiquitination and increasing its protein stability. Our work explored a novel potential mechanism in the protection of VD in particles-induced pulmonary injury and tissue repair, and could further bring insights into exploring antifine particles exposure caused inflammation among other natural products and contributes to inflammation disease medical therapies.


Vitamin D treated particulate matter health problems - Aug 2018

Effects of vitamin D on inflammatory and oxidative stress responses of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to particulate matter
PLoS One. 2018 Aug 29;13(8):e0200040. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200040. eCollection 2018.
Pfeffer PE1,2, Lu H1, Mann EH1, Chen YH1, Ho TR1, Cousins DJ1,3, Corrigan C1, Kelly FJ4, Mudway IS4, Hawrylowicz CM1.
.
BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) pollutant exposure, which induces oxidative stress and inflammation, and vitamin D insufficiency, which compromises immune regulation, are detrimental in asthma.

OBJECTIVES: Mechanistic cell culture experiments were undertaken to ascertain whether vitamin D abrogates PM-induced inflammatory responses of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) through enhancement of antioxidant pathways.

METHODS: Transcriptome analysis, PCR and ELISA were undertaken to delineate markers of inflammation and oxidative stress; with comparison of expression in primary HBECs from healthy and asthmatic donors cultured with reference urban PM in the presence/absence of vitamin D.

RESULTS:
Transcriptome analysis identified over 500 genes significantly perturbed by PM-stimulation, including multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines. Vitamin D altered expression of a subset of these PM-induced genes, including suppressing IL6. Addition of vitamin D suppressed PM-stimulated IL-6 production, although to significantly greater extent in healthy versus asthmatic donor cultures. Vitamin D also differentially affected PM-stimulated GM-CSF, with suppression in healthy HBECs and enhancement in asthmatic cultures. Vitamin D increased HBEC expression of the antioxidant pathway gene G6PD, increased the ratio of reduced to oxidised glutathione, and in PM-stimulated cultures decreased the formation of 8-isoprostane. Pre-treatment with vitamin D decreased CXCL8 and further decreased IL-6 production in PM-stimulated cultures, an effect abrogated by inhibition of G6PD with DHEA, supporting a role for this pathway in the anti-inflammatory actions of vitamin D.

CONCLUSIONS:
In a study using HBECs from 18 donors, vitamin D enhanced HBEC antioxidant responses and modulated the immune response to PM, suggesting that vitamin D may protect the airways from pathological pollution-induced inflammation.

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki


Note: Particulate matter problems apparently treated by inhaling Vitamin D

By the founder of VitaminDWiki, who lives near Seattle
In Aug of 2018 there was a lot of particulate matter in the air
The air pollution from wildfires has recently been called a smokestorm (by Cliff Mass)
I went for a bike ride when the smokestorm was almost gone
Felt a restriction in my breathing that night and the next morning.,
I inhaled 3 puffs of Vitamin D and the restriction totally went away in less than an hour
I do not know if the Vitamin D treated the health problem or it the problem would have gone away without it.
   Henry Lahore


See also web


Ozone on the web

  • Temporal variation in air pollution concentrations and preterm birth-a population based epidemiological study Sweden, Jan 2012 free full text online
    • Ozone during the first trimester associated with pre-term birth, unless it occured in the fall when vitamin D levels were highest
  • Breathing dirty city air is as bad for your lungs as smoking FastCompany Aug 2019
    • Ozone Worse: 10 years of high ozone = 30 years of smoking a pack a day
    • "Climate change, unfortunately, is making ground-level ozone increase; ozone is formed when sunlight reacts with chemicals emitted from cars and other sources of pollution, and warmer temperatures make things worse."
    • "Study = Association Between Long-term Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and Change in Quantitatively Assessed Emphysema and Lung Function" Aug 2019
    • Free PDF doi:10.1001/jama.2019.10255
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome - April 2017. FREE PDF doi: 10.1183/16000617.0116-2016
    • "In addition to the well-known risk-factors for ARDS, exposure to high ozone levels and low vitamin D plasma concentrations were found to be predisposing circumstances"


Air Pollution reduces Vitamin D        

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ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
11971 Pollution Jan 2019.jpg admin 17 May, 2019 16:04 87.11 Kb 257
11970 Smoking.jpg admin 17 May, 2019 16:03 45.79 Kb 231
11969 Pollution Jan 2019.pdf PDF 2019 admin 17 May, 2019 15:59 1.66 Mb 53
11968 Pollution Feb 2019.pdf PDF 2019 admin 17 May, 2019 15:12 955.78 Kb 58
10437 particulate matter.pdf PDF 2018 admin 30 Aug, 2018 11:57 4.37 Mb 173
8029 Low serum vitamin D-status, air pollution and obesity.pdf PDF 2016 admin 28 May, 2017 14:25 513.62 Kb 572
3673 Pollution and factory efficiency.pdf PDF 2014 admin 05 Mar, 2014 22:43 691.33 Kb 1661
3586 UVB decrease due to pollution.jpg admin 26 Jan, 2014 13:21 31.87 Kb 4160
3585 UVB and pollution-2008.pdf PDF admin 26 Jan, 2014 13:20 7.11 Mb 2406
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