Dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome in the adult population: dose-response meta-analysis and meta-regression.
Nutrients. 2014 Dec 22;6(12):6005-19. doi: 10.3390/nu6126005.
Increasing evidence has suggested an association between dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome. However, previous research examining dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome has produced mixed results.
Our objective was to determine the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome in the adult population using a dose-response meta-analysis.
We searched the PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library databases from August, 1965, to May, 2014. Observational studies reporting risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for metabolic syndrome in ≥3 categories of dietary magnesium intake levels were selected. The data extraction was performed independently by two authors, and the quality of the studies was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies (RoBANS). Based on eight cross-sectional studies and two prospective cohort studies, the pooled relative risks of metabolic syndrome per 150 mg/day increment in magnesium intake was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.93; I2 = 36.3%).
The meta-regression model showed a generally linear, inverse relationship between magnesium intake (mg/day) and metabolic syndrome. This dose-response meta-analysis indicates that dietary magnesium intake is significantly and inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome. However, randomized clinical trials will be necessary to address the issue of causality and to determine whether magnesium supplementation is effective for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.
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Oral Magnesium Supplementation and Metabolic Syndrome: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2018 May;25(3):261-266. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2018.02.011.
Rodríguez-Morán M1, Simental-Mendía LE1, Gamboa-Gómez CI1, Guerrero-Romero F2.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral magnesium supplementation in the improvement of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. This is a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial that enrolled 198 individuals with MetS and hypomagnesemia who were randomly allocated to receive either 30 mL of magnesium chloride 5% solution, equivalent to 382 mg of elemental magnesium (n = 100), or placebo solution (n = 98), daily for 16 weeks. Serum magnesium levels <1.8 mg/dL defined hypomagnesemia.
At final conditions, a total of 48 (48%) and 76 (77.5%) individuals had MetS in the magnesium and placebo groups (P = 0.01), respectively. At baseline, percent of individuals with 3, 4, and 5 criteria of MetS in the magnesium group were 60.0%, 37.0%, and 3.0%, respectively, and in the control group 55.1%, 35.7%, and 9.2%, respectively. Between basal and final conditions, changes in the components of MetS were significantly higher in the magnesium than placebo groups: -3.6 ± 3.3 mmHg, P = 0.001 for systolic blood pressure; -5.5 ± 1.7 mmHg, P = 0.005 for diastolic blood pressure; -12.4 ± 3.6 mg/dL, P < 0.005 for fasting glucose; -61.2 ± 24 mg/dL, P = 0.003 for triglycerides; and 0.9 ± 0.4 mg/dL, P = 0.06 for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Magnesium supplementation improves MetS by reducing blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia.