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Preeclampsia reduced by Vitamin D - many studies

Preeclampsia reduced by 3X with monthly Vitamin D (RCT)
Preeclampsia is reduced by 2.7X if take calcium
  Preeclampsia complicates up to 8% of pregnancies.
   But only 3% of pregnancies if 500 mg of Calcium is taken daily.
Black women are 60% more likely to develop the preeclampsia
(They tend to have low Vitamin D levels)


Preeclampsia rate reduced 3X by Vitamin D (60,000 IU once a month) - RCT Feb 2024

Effect of early vitamin D supplementation on the incidence of preeclampsia in primigravid women: a randomised clinical trial in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2024 Feb 3;24(1):107. doi: 10.1186/s12884-024-06277-6.
Richard Kabuseba Kabuyanga 1, Pierrot Lundimu Tugirimana 2, Balungwe Sifa 3, Mwanga Balezi 4, Michel Ekanga Dikete 5, Prudence Ndeba Mitangala 6, Jean Pierre Moyene Elongi 7, Xavier Kalume Kinenkinda 8, Jean-Baptiste Sakatolo Zambeze Kakoma 9

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Vitamin D levels in ng?   Non-supplemented had higher levels of vitamin D?

Background: Previous studies have reported the association between maternal vitamin D deficiency and preeclampsia. However, the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the occurrence of preeclampsia remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cholecalciferol supplementation on the incidence of preeclampsia in primigravid women and its related maternal and foetal outcomes.

Methods: A single-blinded clinical trial was conducted in fourteen antenatal care health facilities in the North (Goma, Mwesso, Nyiragongo) and South Kivu (Bukavu-Panzi) provinces of the Democratic Republic of Congo from March 1, 2020, to June 30, 2021. A total of 1300 primigravid women not exceeding 16 weeks of gestation were randomised with a 1:1 ratio to either the supplemented (A) or control (B) group. Each pregnant woman (A) presenting for antenatal care received a single monthly dose of cholecalciferol (60,000 IU) orally for 6 months. The control group received no vitamin D supplementation or placebo. Serum 25(OH)D was measured at recruitment and at 34 weeks of gestation. Outcomes were assessed monthly until delivery.

Results: The median maternal age was 21 years (14-40), while the median gestational age was 15 weeks (5.4-29.0).

  • A significant reduction in the risk of preeclampsia [RR = 0.36 (0.19-0.69); p = 0.001] and
  • preterm delivery [RR = 0.5 (0.32-0.78); p = 0.002] was observed in the intervention group.
  • An RR of 0.43 [(0.27-0.67); p < 0.001] was found for low birth weight.
  • The RR for caesarean section was 0.63 [(0.52-0.75); p < 0.001].
  • The APGAR score at the 5th minute (p = 0.021) and the
  • size of the newborn were significantly higher in the supplemented group (p = 0.005).

Conclusion: A single monthly dose (60,000 IU) of vitamin D supplementation, started in early pregnancy, significantly reduced the incidence of preeclampsia and its maternal and foetal complications.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki


Preeclampsia = hypertension (high blood pressure) during pregnancy

Image   click here for details


Preeclampsia 4.3 X more likely if low vitamin D - meta-analysis Nov 2023

Vitamin D and preeclampsia: A systematic review and meta-analysis
SAGE Open Med . 2023 Nov 22:11:20503121231212093. doi: 10.1177/20503121231212093
Abdulla AlSubai 1, Muhammad Hadi Baqai 2, Hifza Agha 3, Neha Shankarlal 4, Syed Sarmad Javaid 5, Eshika Kumari Jesrani 2, Shalni Golani 6, Abdullah Akram 4, Faiza Qureshi 6, Shaheer Ahmed 4, Simran Saran 7

Preeclampsia RCTs: 4.3 X high risk if low Vitamin D

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Objectives: Preeclampsia is one of the most frequent pregnancy disorders, with a global incidence of 2%-8%. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is an essential mineral for human health; some studies suggest link between 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and preeclampsia, while others offer contradictory findings. Thus, the goal of this study is to evaluate the relationships between maternal 25- hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the risk of preeclampsia. In addition to this, our study also evaluates the effects of 25- hydroxyvitamin D supplementation on the incidence of preeclampsia. Therefore, assessing 25- hydroxyvitamin D's potential as a possible intervention to lower the risk of preeclampsia.

Methods: The Medline database was queried from inception until July 2021 for randomized controlled trials and observational studies without any restrictions. The studies assessing the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and preeclampsia and the impact of 25-hydroxyvitamin D supplementation on the incidence of preeclampsia were incorporated. The results were reported using a random-effects meta-analysis and the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant for the analysis.

Results: This analysis includes 34 papers, including 10 randomized controlled trials and 24 observational studies. According to our pooled analysis, 25-hydroxyvitamin D supplementation was significantly associated with a lower risk of preeclampsia in pregnant women (OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.40-0.63; p = 0.00001), while 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia (OR: 4.30; 95 % CI: 2.57-7.18; p < 0.00001, OR: 1.71; 95 % Cl: 1.27-2.32; p = 0.0005, OR 1.61; 95 % Cl: 1.21-2.16; p = 0.001).

Conclusion: Results suggest that 25-hydroxyvitamin D has a significant relationship with preeclampsia as confirmed by the findings that low maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations cause increased risk of preeclampsia while 25-hydroxyvitamin D supplementation reduces the incidence of preeclampsia. Our findings indicate that 25-hydroxyvitamin D supplementation can be used as a possible intervention strategy in preventing one of the most common causes of maternal mortality around the world, preeclampsia.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki


Preeclampsia 3X more likely if low vitamin D in mid-pregnancy - May 2023

Association of maternal vitamin D status with the risk of preeclampsia
Food Funct. 2023 May 22;14(10):4859-4865. doi: 10.1039/d3fo00007a   PDF is behind a paywall
Juhi Nema 1, Nisha Wadhwani 1, Karuna Randhir 1, Kamini Dangat 1, Hemlata Pisal 1, Vrushali Kadam 1, Savita Mehendale 2, Girija Wagh 2, Bharati Kulkarni 3, Harshpal Singh Sachdev 4, Caroline Fall 5, Sanjay Gupte 6, Sadhana Joshi 1

The aim of this study was to examine serum vitamin D concentrations from early pregnancy until delivery in women who did and did not develop preeclampsia. This longitudinal study was carried out in Pune, India. A total of 1154 women with singleton pregnancies were recruited in early pregnancy from two hospitals. Blood samples were collected and stored at four time points across gestation: V1 = 11-14 weeks, V2 = 18-22 weeks, V3 = 26-28 weeks and V4 = at delivery. 108 women who developed preeclampsia (PE) and 216 who did not develop PE (Non-PE) were randomly selected from the remainder. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations (25(OH)D) were estimated in their samples using commercially available ELISA kits. Independent t-tests were used to compare 25(OH)D between PE and non-PE groups. Logistic and linear regressions were used to examine associations of 25(OH)D with the risk of preeclampsia and birth outcomes, respectively, after adjusting for confounders. The mean (SD) 25(OH)D at V1 was 21.95 (19.64) in the Non-PE group and 17.76 (13.21) in the PE group.
A decrease in the concentrations of vitamin D (ng ml-1) in mid-pregnancy (V2) and at delivery was associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia (0.31 [95% CI 0.11, 0.86], p = 0.024 and 0.24 [95% CI 0.08, 0.77], p = 0.016), respectively. Our finding of lower vitamin D concentrations in mid-pregnancy, before women developed clinical preeclampsia, suggests that vitamin D may have a role in its pathophysiology.


Preeclampsia 4 X more-likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor - Aug 2023

Impact of vitamin D binding protein (GC) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism on the risk of developing preeclampsia
Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports Vol 35, Sept 2023, 101526 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrep.2023.101526
Md Mostafijur Rahman a 1, Tamima Nawfal a 1, Fabliha Afiea Khabir a 1, Md Bayejid Hosen a, Mubasshir Washif a, Yearul Kabir b, M Zakir Hossain Howlader a

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Objective
Preeclampsia is a multifactorial disease characterized by high blood pressure and protein in the urine. In this study, we investigated the association of vitamin D binding protein (GC) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism with the risk of developing preeclampsia.

Methods
25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured using High-performance Liquid Chromatography. Vitamin D binding protein and vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.

Results
The control subjects have significant higher level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (33.5 ± 1.194 ng/mL) relative to patients (23.97 ± 1.604 ng/mL) (p < 0.05). Vitamin D receptor rs1544410 and rs2228570 dominant model (GA + AA; TC + CC) showed significant higher risk of developing Preeclampsia (OR = 4.11, 95% CI = 0.62–27.09, p < 0.01; OR = 3.58, 95%CI = 0.78–16.38, p < 0.001 respectively). Similarly, vitamin D binding protein rs7041 and rs4588, dominant model (TG + GG; CA + AA) showed higher risk of preeclampsia development compared to control people (OR = 1.69, 95%CI = 0.35–8.19, p < 0.05; OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.25–4.44, p < 0.05 respectively). AA genotype of rs4588 of GC gene was significantly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in serum relative to CC and CA (p < 0.05).

Conclusion
From our study, we can conclude that a low level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, GC (rs1544410 and rs2228570), and VDR (rs4588 and rs7041) gene polymorphism is linked with an increased risk of developing preeclampsia.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki


Preeclampsia 1.5 more-likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor - meta-analysis April 2023

Association between Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis
PeerJ. 2023 Apr 25;11:e15181. doi: 10.7717/peerj.15181
Yicong Guo # 1, Yu Zhang # 2, Xiangling Tang 2, Xionghao Liu 2, Huilan Xu 1

Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are currently one of the major causes of pregnancy-related maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent studies provide evidence that maternal Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms probably play a key role by affecting the biological function of vitamin D in some adverse pregnancy outcomes, while the relationship between the VDR gene polymorphisms and the risk of HDP remains controversial in current studies. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to comprehensively evaluate the association of the VDR gene polymorphisms with HDP susceptibility.

Methods: This meta-analysis follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and a protocol has been registered in the PROSPERO (ID: CRD42022344383) before commencing this review. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched until January 21, 2023. Case-control and cohort studies that reported the association of the VDR gene polymorphisms with HDP were included. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for non-randomized studies. The odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the five models (allele model, dominant model, recessive model, homozygous model, heterozygous model) were pooled respectively, and subgroup analysis was performed based on ethnicity.

Results: A total of ten studies were included. The VDR gene ApaI polymorphism was associated with HDP susceptibility in the dominant model (OR: 1.38; 95% CI [1.07-1.79]; P = 0.014) and the heterozygote model (OR: 1.48; 95% CI [1.12-1.95]; P = 0.006). In subgroup analysis, the heterozygote model (OR: 2.06; 95% CI [1.21-3.52]; P = 0.008) of the ApaI polymorphism was associated with HDP in Asians, but not in Caucasians.

Conclusion: The VDR gene ApaI polymorphism may be associated with HDP susceptibility. Insufficient evidence to support the existence of ethnic differences in this association.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki


Could Vitamin D Be Effective in Prevention of Preeclampsia? - Oct 2021

Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3854; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113854
by Elżbieta Poniedziałek-Czajkowska *ORCID andRadzisław MierzyńskiORCID
Chair and Department of Obstetrics and Perinatology, Medical University of Lublin, 20-954 Lublin, Poland

(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnancy Disorders)

Prevention of preeclampsia (PE) remains one of the most significant problems in perinatal medicine. Due to the possible unpredictable course of hypertension in pregnancy, primarily PE and the high complication rate for the mother and fetus/newborn, it is urgent to offer pregnant women in high-risk groups effective methods of preventing the PE development or delaying its appearance. In addition, due to the association of PE with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in later life, effective preeclampsia prevention could also be important in reducing their incidence. Ideal PE prophylaxis should target the pathogenetic changes leading to the development of PE and be safe for the mother and fetus, inexpensive and freely available. Currently, the only recognized method of PE prevention recommended by many institutions around the world is the use of a small dose of acetylsalicylic acid in pregnant women with risk factors. Unfortunately, some cases of PE are diagnosed in women without recognized risk factors and in those in whom prophylaxis with acetylsalicylic acid is not adequate. Hence, new drugs which would target pathogenetic elements in the development of preeclampsia are studied. Vitamin D (Vit D) seems to be a promising agent due to its beneficial effect on placental implantation, the immune system, and angiogenic factors. Studies published so far emphasize the relationship of its deficiency with the development of PE, but the data on the benefits of its supplementation to reduce the risk of PE are inconclusive. In the light of current research, the key issue is determining the protective concentration of Vit D in a pregnant woman. The study aims to present the possibility of using Vit D to prevent PE, emphasizing its impact on the pathogenetic elements of preeclampsia development.


Preeclampsia Vitamin DTrials

more columns are in the PDF
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Preeclampsia meta-analyses

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Conclusions

Currently, the commonly recommended preeclampsia prophylaxis is the use of low doses of acetylsalicylic acid in high-risk pregnant women and, by some institutions, calcium supplementation in groups with its deficiencies in the diet. Numerous studies are being conducted on the use of other substances and drugs for this purpose, which, due to their properties and mechanisms of action, could prevent the development of preeclampsia. One of these thoroughly studied substances is vitamin D. Based on the results of research explaining its mechanism of action and understanding the reasons and pathophysiology of the development of preeclampsia, it might be postulated that an anti-inflammatory effect of Vit D and its beneficial influence on the endothelium constitutes its potential use in PE prevention. Unfortunately, the results of the randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses are ambiguous. Despite the multitude of studies published on this subject, there are no clear conclusions about its effectiveness in PE prevention which could form the basis for developing universal recommendations.
In the light of the available data, the following issues regarding the role of vitamin D in preventing preedampsia remain unresolved:

  • 1. Should the target group for vitamin D supplementation be all pregnant women or only those at high risk?
  • 2. Should it be recommended to test the vitamin D concentration in the periconceptional period and the early first trimester in all pregnant women or a high-risk group?
  • 3. Since when (during the planning period of pregnancy or in the first trimester),
    • how long and what doses of vitamin D should be proposed considering the safety of offspring?
  • 4. What vitamin D level in the periconceptional period and the first trimester should be considered sufficient?

These questions may determine the direction of research on vitamin D in the prevention of preeclampsia.
It seems that the fundamental issue, despite the extensive literature, remains the assessment of Vit D concentration in the periconceptional period and/or the early first trimester and defining levels that would allow reducing the risk of PE development. Women with risk factors for Vit D deficiency such as obesity, kidney, liver, thyroid gland diseases, chronic bowel diseases, autoimmune diseases, asthma, diabetes t.2, hypertension, and chronic glucocorticoids, antiepileptic and antiretroviral drug treatment would benefit the most from screening. It appears that patients with risk factors for PE development and Vit D deficiency may require higher doses of vitamin D than commonly recommended for pregnant women.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki


55+ VitaminDWiki pages with PREECLAMPSIA in title

This list is automatically updated

Items found: 57
Title Modified
Vitamin D supplementation decreased the risk of preeclampsia by 39% – meta-analysis Feb 2024 07 Mar, 2024
Preeclampsia reduced by Vitamin D - many studies 01 May, 2023
200 IU of Vitamin D does not prevent preeclampsia – RCT Aug 2012 01 May, 2023
Preeclampsia and Vitamin D - many studies 01 May, 2023
Preeclampsia reduced by 33 percent if high vitamin D – meta-analysis Feb 2023 23 Feb, 2023
Risk of preeclampsia should drop to nearly zero at 60 ng of Vitamin D – July 2022 22 Jul, 2022
Vitamin D reduces preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and hypertension - 38th meta-analysis Dec 2021 31 May, 2022
Low Vitamin D associated with preeclampsia - meta-analysis Feb 2022 24 Mar, 2022
Seasonal variation on preeclampsia is correlated with sunlight intensity - June 2010 28 Oct, 2021
No Preeclampsia during pregnancy if more than 60 ng of vitamin D – RCT July 2013 02 Jul, 2021
Child 49 percent higher risk of being overweight if preeclampsia during pregnancy – Sept 2017 02 Jul, 2021
Hypertension in pregnancy (preeclampsia) more frequent in winter (low vitamin D) – Jan 2015 22 Jun, 2021
Preeclampsia (hypertension while pregnant) varies with season (O.R. 0.57) – June 2021 22 Jun, 2021
Preeclampsia (low vitamin D) doubles the risk of later cardiovascular problems – Sept 2019 07 Oct, 2019
Preeclampsia 11X more likely if poor Vitamin D Binding Protein (South Africa) - Sept 2019 29 Sep, 2019
Vitamin D cuts pregnancy risks in half – low birth weight, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes – Cochrane July 2019 12 Sep, 2019
Preeclampsia 2.7 X less likely if 50,000 IU of Vitamin D every 2 weeks – meta-analysis Sept 2019 06 Sep, 2019
Preeclampsia 2X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – April 2019 23 Apr, 2019
Preeclampsia 3X more likely if low vitamin D at 25th week – April 2012 20 Feb, 2019
Preeclampsia 2.7X more frequent if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2013 20 Feb, 2019
Preeclampsia rate cut in half by high level of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2014 20 Feb, 2019
Preeclampsia risk reduced 7X by 4,000 IU of Vitamin D daily – RCT March 2018 20 Feb, 2019
Preeclampsia of offspring cut in half if mother who smoked had vitamin D fortified margarine – Dec 2017 20 Feb, 2019
Preeclampsia is not reduced by vitamin D (if you ignore vitamin D level, dose size, frequency and duration) – July 2017 20 Feb, 2019
Preeclampsia inversely proportional to serum Magnesium – Oct 2014 20 Feb, 2019
Preeclampsia risk reduced by higher levels of vitamin D (VDAART 4,400 IU) - RCT Nov 2016 20 Feb, 2019
Preeclampsia reduced 1.7 X by aspirin (but reduced 7 X by Vitamin D) – Feb 2018 22 Aug, 2018
Vitamin D Receptor is associated with preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth – Nov 2017 10 Nov, 2017
Preeclampsia reduced 2X by Vitamin D, by 5X if also add Calcium – meta-analysis Oct 2017 24 Oct, 2017
Preeclampsia risk reduced 60 percent if supplement with Vitamin D (they ignored dose size) – meta-analysis Sept 2017 08 Sep, 2017
Risk of preeclampsia might be cut in half if take an amount of Vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2017 04 Sep, 2017
Preeclampsia reoccurred half as often if get 50,000 IU of Vitamin D every two weeks – Aug 2017 22 Aug, 2017
Dark-skined mothers: preeclampsia 12X more likely if gestational hypertension – May 2014 17 Aug, 2017
Preeclampsia recurrence reduced 2 X by 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks – RCT July 2017 17 Jul, 2017
Preeclampsia doubles the risk of mild cognitive impairment – July 2017 05 Jul, 2017
Preeclampsia changes to Vitamin D Binding Protein reduces Vitamin D in placenta – Dec 2016 18 Dec, 2016
Preeclampsia 3.5 times more likely if low vitamin D (affects 348 Vit. D genes) – RCT Nov 2016 15 Nov, 2016
Vitamin D supplementation of all pregnant women (in UK) would be cost effective – just considering preeclampsia – March 2016 09 Jul, 2016
Preeclampsia 4X less likely if vitamin D levels increased by 8 ng during pregnancy – March 2016 05 Apr, 2016
Preeclampsia 2X more likely if low vitamin D, unless adjust for vitamin D factors (BMI, skin color) – Dec 2015 21 Jan, 2016
2X more preeclampsia when vitamin D less than 30 ng, etc. - meta-analysis March 2013 16 Jan, 2016
Preeclampsia and eclampsia associated with lower vitamin D, etc. – Sept 2015 13 Nov, 2015
Preeclampsia increased risk of Congenital Heart Defects by 60 percent (vitamin D not mentioned) Oct 2015 28 Oct, 2015
5,000 IU Vitamin D was not enough to reduce preeclampsia but did help future infant – RCT April 2014 15 Oct, 2015
Preeclampsia reduced by Vitamin D (50,000 IU bi-weekly) and Calcium – Oct 2015 15 Oct, 2015
Why preeclampsia is 5X more likely if vitamin D insufficient – Jan 2015 06 Sep, 2015
Preeclampsia – hypothesis as to why vitamin D helps – June 2015 09 Jun, 2015
Preeclampsia was prevented or treated by vitamin D in majority of studies – review May 2015 26 May, 2015
Women with low vitamin D 4X more likely to have preeclampsia in pregnancy – Nov 2010 28 Mar, 2015
7X increase in early severe preeclampsia associated with low vitamin D – Aug 2012 20 Mar, 2015
High blood pressure during pregnancy (preeclampsia) associated with low vitamin D, c-section – Jan 2015 22 Jan, 2015
Preeclampsia 40 percent less likely if had more than 20 ng of vitamin D – Jan 2014 30 Jan, 2014
Preeclampsia 40 percent less likely if mother had more than 20 ng of vitamin D – Jan 2014 30 Jan, 2014
2X more likely to have preeclampsia if less than 20 ng of vitamin D – Meta-analysis Jan 2013 11 Jan, 2014
Almost 3X more likely to get preeclampsia if low vitamin D and high PTH– July 2013 15 Sep, 2013
How to reduce preeclampsia - May 2011 19 Apr, 2013
Low vitamin D results in severe preeclampsia and low birth weight – Mar 2011 27 Nov, 2011

USPSTF wants to screen all pregnacies for hypertension - Feb 2023 (would be far better to just give Vitamin D for all pregnancies)

USPSTF backs screening for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy MDEdge
U.S. Preventive Services Task Force = USPSTF
16% of US pregnancies had hypertension in 2019


VutaminDWiki - Hypertension category contains

164 items in the category HYPERTENSION

see also
Overview Overview Hypertension and Vitamin D
Overview Cardiovascular and vitamin D
Overview Stroke and vitamin D
Incidence of 22 health problems related to vitamin D have doubled in a decade
Some interesting Hypertension studies


VitaminDWiki - Pregnancy category contains

886 items in Pregnancy category

 - see also


VitaminDWiki - Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D contains

Problem
Vit. D
Reduces
Evidence
0. Chance of not conceiving3.4 times Observe
1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe
2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 timesRCT
3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT
4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe
5. Premature birth 2 times RCT
6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 timesObserve
     Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 timesRCT - Omega-3
7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT
8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis
9. Infant height, weight, head size
     within normal limits
RCT
10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT
11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention
12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 timesObserve
13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 timesRCT
14. Good motor skills @ age 31.4 times Observe
15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT
16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT

RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial


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Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
20752 Preeclampsia 60K.png admin 04 Feb, 2024 58.64 Kb 45
20751 Preeclampsia 60 K RCT_CompressPdf.pdf admin 04 Feb, 2024 433.92 Kb 27
20423 Preeclampsia RCT.png admin 30 Nov, 2023 275.53 Kb 89
20422 preeclampsia meta_CompressPdf.pdf admin 30 Nov, 2023 299.54 Kb 62
19916 Preclampsia table.jpg admin 07 Aug, 2023 161.03 Kb 206
19915 preeclampsia VDR.jpg admin 07 Aug, 2023 56.27 Kb 181
19914 preeclampsia VDR_CompressPdf.pdf admin 07 Aug, 2023 362.74 Kb 132
19532 preeclampsia signs.jpg admin 01 May, 2023 33.95 Kb 373
19531 preeclampsia VDR meta_CompressPdf.pdf admin 01 May, 2023 294.87 Kb 157
16509 PE meta.jpg admin 28 Oct, 2021 215.67 Kb 382
16508 PE RCT.jpg admin 28 Oct, 2021 106.66 Kb 387
16507 Preeclampsia 2021.pdf admin 28 Oct, 2021 989.80 Kb 311