Overview Cardiovascular and vitamin D
Overview Stroke and vitamin D
Incidence of 22 health problems related to vitamin D have doubled in a decade
160% increase in Hypertension in females/decade
- A high blood level of vitamin D reduces the risk of both hypertension and pre-hypertension
- Hypertension has been reduced somewhat by vitamin D monotherapy in 4+ random controlled trials
- Hypertension is also reduced by Magnesium, Vitamin K, Omega-3, CO-Q10, and garlic
- It appears that the above supplements can be used concurrently with Vitamin D to massively reduce hypertension
- Hypertension is reduced even more in people having vitamin D health problems
Perhaps to Vitamin D gene limitations?
(More Hypertension info below)
Learn how Vitamin D is essential for good health
Watch a 5 minute video "Does Less Sun Mean more Disease?"
Browse for other Health Problems and D in left column or here
see also Supplementing and More in the menu at the top of every page
If you have a disease associated with low Vit D take Vit D
Raising your Vit D levels will substantially prevent other low-Vit D health problems
Proof that Vitamin D Works Getting Vitamin D into your body
Books and Videos
Reasons for low response to vitamin D Why are doctors reluctant
Cancer studies include: Breast
Colds and flu Dark Skin
COVID-19 treated by Vitamin D - studies, reports, videos
- Nearly half of adults with hypertension are unaware they have it, WHO says - Sept 2023
- Hypertension reduced by Vitamin D - umbrella of 21 meta-analyses - Aug 2023
- Latest Knowledge on the Role of Vitamin D in Hypertension - Feb 2023
- 12 RCTs found that Vitamin D does reduce HT if vitamin D deficient - June 2022
- Global review of Hypertension awareness and treatment - 2019
- Omega-3, Magnesium and Coenzyme Q10 may each be better than Vitamin D at controlling HT
- See also VitaminDWiki
- Far fewer heart problems for those with hypertension if they have > 15 ng of vitamin D
- Vitamin D Proven to Work on 81 health problems: including Hypertension - Sept 2017
- Blood pressures not dropping at night associated with very low level of vitamin D – May 2012
- Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Blood Pressure in Blacks - Clinical Trial June 2013
- Anti-hypertensive drug ==> 40% increase of serious fall injury
- Preeclampsia during pregnancy associated with low vitamin D
- Hypertension increase may caused by Roundup
- Hypertension genetic association with Vitamin D is < 10%
- Probiotics - Hypertension
- Garlic proven to be better than Atenolol - RCT 2013
- Hypertension goals lowered 140/90 to 130/80 by two or 3 organizations Fall 2017
- Arterial stiffness reduced after just 6 weeks of a Mitochondrial Antioxidant (MitoQ) - RCT May 2018
- Hypertension reduced by Potassium
- Hypertension 4.5 X more likely if both parents were hypertensive (7X if Obese) - Sep 2022
- Hypertension is associated with other categories: Pregnancy 42, Meta-analysis 22, Intervention 16, Cardiovascular 16, Diabetes 13, Magnesium 11, Stroke 10, Receptor 9, Top news 7, Obesity 6, Metabolic Syndrome 6, Skin - Dark 6, Virus 5, Intervention - non daily 5, Genetics 5, Omega-3 4, Infant-Child 4, Kidney 4
- Details of categories associated with Hypertension
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- "A 2020 study published in The Lancet found high blood pressure is “the single most important risk factor for early death,” the WHO report says. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, leads to an estimated 10 million deaths every year, but almost half of adults with high blood pressure don’t know they have it."
- WHO Report
The Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on Improving Blood Pressure: Evidence Obtained From an Umbrella Meta-Analysis
Clin Ther . 2023 Aug 21;S0149-2918(23)00294-1. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2023.07.020 PDF behind paywall
Rui Meng 1, Nima Radkhah 2, Faezeh Ghalichi 3, Fatemeh Hamedi-Kalajahi 3, Vali Musazadeh 2, Saleh A K Saleh 4, Heba M Adly 5, Mohamed Ismail Albadawi 6, Parsa Jamilian 7, Meysam Zarezadeh 3, Alireza Ostadrahimi 2, Jie Li 8
Purpose: The results of meta-analyses regarding the effect of vitamin D on blood pressure are conflicting. The present umbrella meta-analysis was conducted to provide definite and conclusive results.
Methods: Systematically, Scopus, EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Science databases and Google Scholar were searched for relevant literature published up to July 2022. All meta-analyses of clinical trials addressing the effect of vitamin D on blood pressure were included. Random effects analysis was performed to obtain the overall effect size based on the standardized mean differences (SMDs) and weighted mean differences (WMDs) separately. The quality of included meta-analyses was assessed by using the Measurement Tool for Assessing Multiple Systematic Reviews 2 questionnaire.
Findings: Overall, 21 meta-analyses were enrolled in the umbrella review. The results indicated that systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced after the intervention based on WMD effect size analysis (ESWMD = -0.69 mm Hg; 95% CI, -1.35 to -0.04 [P < 0.038]; I2 = 46.7%, P = 0.021); however, no considerable impact was observed based on analysis of SMD effect sizes (ESSMD = -0.05 mm Hg; 95% CI, -0.24 to 0.14; P = 0.615).
Also, vitamin D supplementation indicated a significant improvement in diastolic blood pressure based on WMD effect sizes (ESWMD = -0.66 mm Hg; 95% CI, -1.05 to -0.27 [P < 0.001]; I2 = 56.4%, P = 0.004) but not SMD analysis (ESSMD = -0.04 mm Hg; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.04 [P = 0.328]; I2 = 53.4%, P = 0.057).
Implications: Based on obtained evidence, vitamin D could be considered an efficient adjuvant for improving blood pressure.
Titles of 43 References online
- Vitamin D status and hypertension: a review.
- Vitamin D deficiency.
- Vitamin D status and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis of dose-response.
- Risk factors associated with early childhood caries.
- 25-Hydroxyvitamin D status and risk for colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.
- Vitamin D status and arterial hypertension: a systematic review.
- Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on blood pressure in adults: an updated meta-analysis.
- Effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis incorporating individual patient data.
- Vitamin D and high blood pressure: causal association or epiphenomenon?.
- Vitamin D and risk of future hypertension: meta-analysis of 283,537 participants.
- Vitamin D and hypertension: prospective study and meta-analysis.
- The PRISMA 2020 statement: an updated guideline for reporting systematic reviews.
- AMSTAR 2: a critical appraisal tool for systematic reviews that include randomised or non-randomised studies of healthcare interventions, or both.
- GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations.
- Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions version 6.3
- Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test.
- Funnel plots may show asymmetry in the absence of publication bias with continuous outcomes dependent on baseline risk: presentation of a new publication bias test.
- Vitamin D supplementation, serum 25 (OH) D concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
- Vitamin D supplementation effects on the clinical outcomes of patients with coronary artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
- Effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycose homeostasis and islet function in vitamin D deficient or insufficient diabetes and prediabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
- Effect of vitamin D on blood pressure and hypertension in the general population: an update meta-analysis of cohort studies and randomized controlled trials.
- Effects of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure.
- Effects of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic parameters of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
- Effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure parameters in patients with vitamin D deficiency: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
- The effect of vitamin D supplementation on hypertension in non-CKD populations: a systemic review and meta-analysis.
- Effect of active vitamin D on cardiovascular outcomes in predialysis chronic kidney diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
- Effects of paricalcitol on cardiovascular outcomes and renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease.
- Effect of vitamin D supplementation on vascular function and inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease: a controversial issue.
- The effect of vitamin D3 on blood pressure in people with vitamin D deficiency: a system review and meta-analysis.
- Vitamin D and cardiovascular risk among adults with obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
- Vitamin D and cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
- Effect of vitamin D on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
- Effects of individual micronutrients on blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
- Effects of vitamin D supplementation on 25 (OH) D concentrations and blood pressure in the elderly: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
- Effects of vitamin D on blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
- guideline for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults:
- Responses of parathyroid hormone to vitamin D supplementation: a systematic review of clinical trials.
- Alteration of cellular calcium metabolism as primary cause of hypertension.
- D-PRESSURE Collaboration: effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis incorporating individual patient data.
- Effect of vitamin D3 supplement on blood pressure: a meta-analysis.
- Vitamin D protects against depression: Evidence from an umbrella meta-analysis on interventional and observational meta-analyses.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4679; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054679
by Niklas S. Jensen 1,Markus Wehland 2,3ORCID,Petra M. Wise 4 andDaniela Grimm 1,2,3,*ORCID
Hypertension is the third leading cause of the global disease burden, and while populations live longer, adopt more sedentary lifestyles, and become less economically concerned, the prevalence of hypertension is expected to increase. Pathologically elevated blood pressure (BP) is the strongest risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related disability, thus making it imperative to treat this disease. Effective standard pharmacological treatments, i.e., diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blocker (ARBs), beta-adrenergic receptor blockers (BARBs), and calcium channel blockers (CCBs), are available. Vitamin D (vitD) is known best for its role in bone and mineral homeostasis. Studies with vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout mice show an increased renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) activity and increased hypertension, suggesting a key role for vitD as a potential antihypertensive agent. Similar studies in humans displayed ambiguous and mixed results. No direct antihypertensive effect was shown, nor a significant impact on the human RAAS.
Interestingly, human studies supplementing vitD with other antihypertensive agents reported more promising results. VitD is considered a safe supplement, proposing its great potential as antihypertensive supplement. The aim of this review is to examine the current knowledge about vitD and its role in the treatment of hypertension.
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Is Vitamin D Supplementation an Effective Treatment for Hypertension?
Hypertens Rep 24, 445–453 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11906-022-01204-6
Songcang Chen, Gio Gemelga & Yerem Yeghiazarians
Purpose of the Review
Results from epidemiological studies suggest that vitamin D (VD) deficiency (VDD) may be a cause of hypertension (HTN). However, the results of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) designed to address the impact of VD supplementation on reducing blood pressure (BP) remain equivocal. To determine whether VD might serve as a beneficial treatment option for a specific subset of hypertensive patients, we performed a stratified analysis of RCT data and addressed problems associated with some methodological issues.
HTN is caused by multiple factors. VDD may be one of the factors contributing to the development of this disorder. There are more than 70 RCTs that examined the impact of VD supplementation on BP. These RCTs can be classified into four groups based on their respective study populations, including participants who are (1) VD-sufficient and normotensive, (2) VD-deficient and normotensive, (3) VD-sufficient and hypertensive, and (4) VD-deficient and hypertensive.
Our evaluation of these studies demonstrates that VD supplementation is ineffective when used to reduce BP in VD-sufficient normotensive subjects. VD supplementation for five years or more may reduce the risk of developing HTN specifically among those with VDD.
Interestingly, findings from 12 RCTs indicate that daily or weekly supplementation, as opposed to large bolus dosing, results in the reduction of BP in VD-deficient hypertensive patients. Our ongoing research focused on elucidating the mechanisms of VDD-induced HTN will ultimately provide evidence to support the development of etiology-specific prevention and treatment strategies focused on HTN in the VD-deficient population.
No such attachment on this page
The association between vitamin D deficiency and the risk of resistant hypertension
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension https://doi.org/10.1080/10641963.2019.1601204 PDF is behind $62 paywall
Shiran Alagacone,Emanuele VergaORCID Icon,Roberto Verdolini &Shaik Mohammed Saifullah
Background: Previous studies have already shown a link between vitamin D deficiency and hypertension. The impact of vitamin D deficiency in resistant hypertension is currently unknown. This study examined whether an association between the two entities exists.
Method: We analysed 2953 known hypertensive subjects surveyed by NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) among the United States population between 2003 and 2006. Subjects were categorized as having either resistant hypertension or hypertension based on the number of anti-hypertensives in use and their overall blood pressure control. Subjects were also categorized as vitamin D deficient if they had 25(OH)D (25-hydroxycholecalciferol) levels less than 20ng/ml.
Results: Out of the 2953 subjects, 362 (12%) were found to have resistant hypertension and 2591 (88%) had controlled hypertension. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in resistant hypertension and controlled hypertension groups was 61% and 46% respectively. Following adjustments for other variables such as age, renal function, obesity and ethnicity, the odds ratio (OR) for concomitant presence of resistant hypertension and vitamin D deficiency was 3.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.69–7.17; P < 0.009). The OR for having resistant hypertension and chronic kidney disease, older age and obesity were 2.5 (95% CI 1.5–4; P < 0.0003), 1.034 (95% CI 1.02–1.07; P < 0.0001) and 1.048 (95% CI 1.02–1.07; P < 0.0001) respectively.
Conclusion: This study found a statistically significant association between vitamin D deficiency and resistant hypertension.
Long-term and recent trends in hypertension awareness, treatment, and control in 12 high-income countries: an analysis of 123 nationally representative surveys
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
- Hypertension reduced by Omega-3, especially if previously untreated – meta-analysis July 2014
- Hypertension 1.5X more likely if low level of Magnesium - Oct 2014
- Oral magnesium supplements decrease high blood pressure (SBP>155 mmHg) in hypertensive subjects on anti-hypertensive medications: a targeted meta-analysis. July 2013
7 studies of 6+ months. Start systolic > 155 mm ==> reduce by 19 mm
- Off topic – Hypertension and statin pain reduced by Coenzyme Q10 – 2010
- WebMD analysis of 74 supplements for Hypertension
- Reduce Blood Pressure—Naturally March 201 LEF
Certain foods and nutrients may help promote healthy blood pressure. These include nuts, vitamin D, magnesium, coenzyme Q10, French maritime pine bark extract, anthocyanins, omega-3 fats, resveratrol, acetyl-L-carnitine, and melatonin.
The doses to get vitamin D level to 60-70 ng/mL; average dose 6,000 IU daily
- Diabetic hypertension reduced with Vitamin D and Calcium – RCT March 2015
- 8 percent less chance of hypertension with 10 percent increase in Vitamin D - June 2013
- Hypertension reduced in mice on high fat diet by adding vitamin D for 6 weeks– Jan 2013
- Vitamin D and Arterial Hypertension: Treat the Deficiency - Feb 2013
- Reduce blood pressure by 9 mm with triple hypertensive drug or 19 mm with Magnesium – April 2018
- Includes chart of hypertension reduction by 4 diets
- Hypertension 30 percent more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2013
- Resistant Hypertension incidence increased 2X in 20 years – vitamin D might help
- Hypertension experts want still more vitamin D proof – Oct 2012
- Hypertension associated with low Calcium levels– Oct 2011
- Hypertension more likely with less vitamin D - Dec 2010 all work at Kaiser Permanente
- More sunlight, more vitamin D, less hypertension - Feb 2012
- Search VitaminDwiki for "blood pressure" 972 as of Jan 2015
Did not search for Hypertension as that word is displayed on most webpages (left-hand column)
- 2400 IU of vitamin D daily average reduced systolic blood pressure – Jan 2012 149 ==> 141.6 in 3 months
- Prehypertension 48 % more likely with low vitamin D – Sept 2011
- Daily average of 3600 IU Vitamin D helped hypertensives – Jan 2013
- Postmenopausal vitamin D benefits to blood pressure and kidney – Review July 2013
- Overview Cholesterol and vitamin D
Proof that Vitamin D Works has 4 RCT proofs of Hypertension treatment
Health Problem Treat
click for details
RCT = Random Controlled Trial
* = link to additional RCT
CT = Clinical Trial
Hypertension T 149 to 142 mm Hg RCT* *__, 2400 IU. 100,000 IU*
Hypertension reduction needs more than 4,000 IU of vitamin D for 6 months – RCT Oct 2014
Hypertension reduction sometimes needs more than 4,000 IU of vitamin D for 6 months – RCT Oct 2014 in VitaminDWiki
Clinical Trials: Hypertension and Vitamin D
Search hypertension, intervention, vitamin D 39 studies as of Aug 2023
Reduce Cardiac Damage 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks
Patients With Hypertension 3,000 IU daily for 6 weeks
2360 IU average reduced Systolic blood pressure in Clinical Trial - 2011
Role of vitamin d supplementation in hypertension.
by: R. K. Goel, Harbans Lal
Indian journal of clinical biochemistry : IJCB, Vol. 26, No. 1. (29 January 2011), pp. 88-90. doi:10.1007/s12291-010-0092-0 Key: citeulike:8626469
Role of Vitamin D supplementation was studied in patients with hypertension.
One hundred hypertensive patients (group I) were given conventional antihypertensive drugs while another 100 patients (group II), in addition, were supplemented with Vitamin D(3) (33,000 IU, after every 2 weeks, for 3 months).
Besides diastolic and systolic blood pressure, serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, albumin-corrected calcium, and 24 h urinary creatinine levels were estimated in both the groups before the start of treatment and after 3 months.
Vitamin D supplementation showed a more significant decrease in systolic blood pressure.
This group also showed a significant increase in serum calcium as well as albumin-corrected calcium with a decrease in phosphorous.
Results of the study confirm that Vitamin D supplementation has a role in reducing blood pressure in hypertensive patients and that it should be supplemented with the antihypertensive drugs. More extensive studies with a larger group, to draw a definite conclusion, are in progress.
Prehypertension quickly becomes hypertension in blacks - Feb 2012
Prehypertension Feb 2012
Letter to the Editor: Prehypertension: To Treat or Not To Treat Should No Longer Be the Question
We read with great interest the article by Selassie et al1 that progression from prehypertension to full-blown hypertension occurs more rapidly in blacks, with 50% transitioning to hypertension within 1.7 years compared with 2.7 years in whites. Although the authors highlight the importance of controlling prehypertension, we feel that the authors missed an opportunity to stress the feasibility of using antihypertensive drugs to control prehypertension. As we argued previously,2 the recommendation by the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure to treat prehypertension only with lifestyle changes3 is unlikely to work. Our view that prehypertension should be treated pharmacologically is supported by a recent meta-analysis of 16 trials involving 70664 patients.4 This analysis found that prehypertensive patients randomized to the active treatment arm had a 22% reduction in the risk of stroke as compared with the placebo group. In addition, treatment of prehypertension with an angiotensin receptor blocker reduced the risk of incident hypertension.5 Thus, the debate of whether to treat prehypertension should end. Treating prehypertension is medically sound and economically viable,2 and benefits of treatment are now apparent.
Shawn G. Kwatra, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC
Amanda E. Kiely, Department of Ophthalmology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD
Madan M. Kwatra, Department of Anesthesiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC
(Note from VitaminDWiki: Vitamin D reduces both hypertension and prehypertension)
Relationship between Vitamin D Deficiency and Nondipper Hypertension
Clinical and Experimental Hypertension May 17, 2012. (doi:10.3109/10641963.2012.689045)
Mehmet Demir drmehmetmd at gmail.co, Tufan Günay, Gökhan Özmen, Mehmet Melek
Cardiology Department, Bursa Yüksek ?htisas Education and Research Hospital, Bursa, Turkey
Nondipper hypertension is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, and hypertension. Vitamin D deficiency activates the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, which affects the cardiovascular system. For this reason, a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and nondipper hypertension could be suggested. In this study, we compared 25-OH vitamin D levels between dipper and nondipper hypertensive patients. The study included 80 hypertensive patients and they were divided into two groups: 50 dipper patients (29 male, mean age 51.5 ± 8 years) and 30 nondipper patients (17 male, mean age 50.6 ± 5.4 years). All the patients were subjected to transthoracic echocardiography and ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure monitoring. In addition to routine tests, 25-OH vitamin D and parathormone (PTH) levels were analyzed. All the patients received antihypertensive drug therapy for at least 3 months prior to the evaluations. 25-OH vitamin D and PTH levels were compared between the two groups. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of basic characteristics.
- The average PTH level of hypertensive dipper patients was lower than that of nondipper patients (65.3 ± 14.2 vs. 96.9 ± 30.8 pg/mL, P < .001).
- The average 25-OH vitamin D level of hypertensive dipper patients was higher than that of nondipper patients (21.9 ± 7.4 vs. 12.8 ± 5.9 ng/mL, P = .001).
- The left ventricular mass and left ventricular mass index were lower in the dipper patients than in the nondipper patients (186.5 ± 62.1 vs. 246.3 ± 85.3 g, P = .022; and 111.6 ± 21.2 vs.147 ± 25.7 g/m2, P < .001, respectively).
Other conventional echocardiographic parameters were similar between the two groups. Daytime systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements were similar between dippers and nondippers, but there was a significant difference between the two groups with regard to nighttime measurements (nighttime systolic 118.5 ± 5.8 vs.130.2 ± 9.6 mm Hg, P < .001; and nighttime diastolic 69.3 ± 4.8 vs.78.1 ± 7.2 mm Hg, P < .001, respectively).
Our results suggest that vitamin D deficiency has a positive correlation with blood pressure and vitamin D deficiency could be related to nondipper hypertension. The measurement of vitamin D may be used to indicate increased risk of hypertension-related adverse cardiovascular events.
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Hypertension drop at night: 22 nanograms
Hypertension NOT drop at night: 13 nanograms
Wikipedia on Hypertension dipping at night - May 2012
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring allows blood pressure to be intermittently monitored during sleep, and is useful to determine whether the patient is a dipper or non-dipper- - that is to say whether or not blood pressure falls at night compared to daytime values. A nighttime fall is normal. It correlates with relationship depth but other factors such as sleep quality, age, hypertensive status, marital status, and social network support. Absence of a night time dip is associated with poorer health outcomes, including increased mortality in one recent study. In addition, nocturnal hypertension is associated with end organ damage and is a much better indicator than the daytime blood pressure reading.
See also VitaminDWiki Hypertension which remains high (nondipper) is associated with low vitamin D – Sept 2017
Hypertension reduced 6.8 mmHg with 3,000 IU of vitamin D daily – RCT May 2012
VITAMIN D SUPPLEMENTATION DURING WINTER MONTHS REDUCES CENTRAL BLOOD PRESSURE IN PATIENTS WITH HYPERTENSION
22nd European Meeting on Hypertension and Cardiovascular Protection. April 2012, Oral 7A.02
T. Larsen1, F. Mose1, E. Pedersen 1, O. Aagaard 2.
I Department of Medical Research, Holstebro Hospital, Holstebro, Denmark,
2 Department of Medical Biochemistry, Holstebro Hospital, Holstebro, Denmark
Objective: In the northern hemisphere vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent during winter months, and observational studies have associated hypertension with poor vitamin D status. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D supplementation in the winter lowers blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension.
Design: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.
Method: 130 patients with hypertension were randomized to a daily oral dose of 75 ug cholecalciferol or placebo for 20 weeks. The study population consisted of Caucasians residing in Denmark at the 56th northern latitude. Baseline examinations took place from October to November where cutaneous vitamin D synthesis is absent. Primary endpoints were 24-h ambulatory BP, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and central BP obtained by applanation tonometry. Other endpoints were p-25(OH)D, p-Ca++, p-iPTH and components of the renin-angiotensin system. Plasma concentrations of renin, angiotensin II and aldosterone were measured using RIAs. Data were analyzed using unpaired t-test and Mann-Whitney test when appropriate.
Results: 112 patients (mean age 61 ± 10) with a baseline p-25(OH)D of 57 ± 26 nmol/l completed the study. Compared with placebo, cholecalciferol caused a significant increase in p-25(OH)D (62 nmol/l, p < 0.001) and p-Ca++ (0.01 mmol/l, p < 0.05), and a significant suppression of p-PTH (0.97 pmol/l, p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in 24-h ambulatory BP.
However, in patients with p-25(OH)D <75 nmol/l (n = 92), the cholecalciferol group showed a borderline reduction in both systolic BP (3.7 mmHg, p = 0.08) and diastolic BP (2.7 mmHg, p = 0.02) compared to placebo.
Furthermore, in all patients, central systolic and diastolic BP was reduced 6.8 mmHg (p = 0.007) and 1.7 mmHg (p = 0.15), respectively, compared to placebo. No statistically significant difference between groups was observed in pulse wave velocity.
Conclusion: In hypertensive Caucasians residing at the 56th northern latitude, 75 ug of cholecalciferol daily during winter months caused a significant reduction in central systolic blood pressure. In a sub-analysis of patients with p-25(OH)D <75 nmol/l, a marginal reduction in both systolic and diastolic 24-h ambulatory BP was observed.
Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Blood Pressure in Blacks Hypertension Journal, Clinical Trial, June 2013
Trial lasted only 3 months.
No loading dose, so unlikely to get a good level of vitamin D until the final weeks of the trial
Still - 4,000 IU daily reduced systolic pressure −4.0 mm Hg in Blacks
- Are Blood Pressure Drugs Worth the Falls? NYT April 2014
more than 70 % of those over age 70 contend with high blood pressure
85% of Medicare patients with hypertension took at least one type of blood pressure drug
risk of serious fall injuries was significantly higher among those who took anti-hypertensives
study of 5,000 patients avg age 80
moderate users of hypertensives: serious fall injuries were 40 % higher
Note: Preeclampsia= systolic blood pressure > 144mm and protein in urine
- Search VitaminDWiki for PREECLAMPSIA 309 items as of Jan 2015
- Preeclampsia 2.7X more frequent if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2013
- High blood pressure during pregnancy (preeclampsia) associated with low vitamin D, c-section – Jan 2015
- 2X more preeclampsia when vitamin D less than 30 ng, etc. - meta-analysis March 2013
- 7X increase in early severe preeclampsia associated with low vitamin D – Aug 2012
- Dark-skined mothers: preeclampsia 12X more likely if gestational hypertension – May 2014
- Magnesium supplementation to prevent high blood pressure in pregnancy: an RCT Dec 2013
Women not preeclampsic. 74mm if got 300 mg of Magnesium Citrate, 77 mm if not
PDF can be rented from publisher
PERSONAL HEALTH Study Shows Dramatic Correlation Between GMOs And 22 Diseases Nov 2014
See also VitaminDWiki
Huge increases in health problems – risk factors include Vitamin D, Antibiotics, and Roundup
Investigation on Roundup - glyphosate at VitaminDWiki many charts
- Hypertension associated with genes which reduce vitamin D – meta-analysis June 2014 in VitaminDWiki
Good genes which increase vitamin D by 10% result in decreased risk of hypertension by 8%
- What Do We Know and Do Not Know About Vitamin D and hypertension – Sept 2014
Genes play a small role
- Probiotics reduces blood pressure, but not as much as vitamin D does – meta-analysis July 2014
- Can Probiotics Lower Blood Pressure? LEF Feb 2015
- Probiotiocs (yogurt, etc) reduce hypertension – 2017
start 24th week 1200 mg Garlic 144 137 50/100 mg Atenolol 148 139
Under New Guidelines, Millions More Americans Will Need to Lower Blood Pressure New York times Nov 2017
- "number of men under age 45 with a diagnosis of high blood pressure will triple"
- "Nearly half of all American adults, and nearly 80 percent of those aged 65 and older, will find that they qualify and will need to take steps to reduce their blood pressure. "
Don’t Let New Blood Pressure Guidelines Raise Yours New York Times
8% of those getting < 140 had heart problems vs only 6% of those < 120 = 25% less
Also " . . participants were required to be at higher-than-average risk for cardiovascular events? That means the benefit for average patients would be even smaller."
Also - blood pressure measurements need to be taken 5 minutes after sitting down - if not it may be artificially high
Author is also the author of “Less Medicine, More Health: 7 Assumptions That Drive Too Much Medical Care.”
Note: Pre-hypertension = 120-139 / 80-89))
Prehypertension 48 percent more likely with low vitamin D – Sept 2011
Hypertension goals of ADA and ACC/AHA differ - March 2018
American Diabetes Association 140/90 for most diabetics - but lower for some individuals American College of Cardiology
American Heart Association
Trajectories of Blood Pressure Elevation Preceding Hypertension Onset: An Analysis of the Framingham Heart Study Original Cohort
mm Hg Age 123 40 to 49 years 122 50 and 59 years 125 60 and 69 years 121 70 and 79 years
Note: the stated ranges do not agree with the chart inflection points
Wonder if the increase in hypertension at various ages has any relationship to changes in:
- Vitamin D
- Cardiovascular disease
- Chronic Supplementation With a Mitochondrial Antioxidant (MitoQ) Improves Vascular Function in Healthy Older Adults Hypertension Journal
Before the group had < 6%. After 6 weeks it was 42% better ==> <8.5%
Hypertension was not reduced, https://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.117.10787
- Arterial stiffness reduced by vitamin D many studies
- Arterial stiffness reduced by Omega-3, Vitamin D, Vitamin K2, Magnesium, etc. many studies
- Fast blood flow 6.8 X more likely if high vitamin D AND high vitamin K – Aug 2017
From The Body by Bill Bryson, 2019
Well into the twentieth century, many medical authorities believed that high blood pressure was a good thing because it indicated vigorous flow.
- Potassium supplementation with potassium gluconate solution is superior to blood pressure medication Was updated June 2020
- Nust taking nitrate-rich vegitable for one week reduces Sodum/Potassium level so much as to reduce blood pressure by 4 points Dr. Greger Video Aug 2020
- Note: "More than a thousand years ago, for the treatment of hypertension, an ancient Persian medical text advised lifestyle interventions, such as avoiding meat and pastries, and recommended eating spinach. "
Vitamin D and family history of hypertension in relation to hypertension status among college students
J Hum Hypertens. 2022 Sep;36(9):839-845. doi: 10.1038/s41371-021-00577-6
Yendelela L Cuffee 1 , Ming Wang 2 , Nathaniel R Geyer 2 , Sangeeta Saxena 2 , Suzanne Akuley 2 , Lenette Jones 3 , Robin Taylor Wilson 4
Hypertension and vitamin D concentrations have heritable components, although these factors remain uninvestigated in young adults. The objective of this study was to investigate hypertension risk among young adults with respect to family history of hypertension, adjusting for vitamin D status. Resting blood pressure (BP) was measured in 398 individuals aged 18-35 and classified according to the 2017 American Heart Association criteria. Plasma vitamin D metabolite (25(OH)D3; 24,25(OH)2D3; 1,25(OH)2D3) concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Stepwise logistic regression was used to select covariates. Participants' mean age was 21, 30.3% had hypertension, and nearly all unaware of their hypertensive status (90.7%). Compared with no parental history, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for hypertension was elevated among participants with two parents having hypertension (AOR = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.70-11.76), adjusting for sex, body mass index, physical activity, and plasma 25(OH)D3.
Results for systolic hypertension (SH) were similar but more extreme (two parents AOR = 7.1, 95% CI: 2.82, 17.66), although dihydroxy metabolites (1,25(OH)2D3 and 24,25(OH)2D3) were significant. There was a strong, independent association with dual parental history and hypertension status, regardless of vitamin D status. Hypertension was prevalent in nearly one-third of the sample and underscores the need for targeted prevention for young adults.
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