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More than 1.4 grams of Calcium increased male death rate by 1.4 X – Sept 2018

High calcium intake in men not women is associated with all-cause mortality risk: Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.

Arch Osteoporos. 2018 Sep 21;13(1):101. doi: 10.1007/s11657-018-0518-5.

PDF is available free at Sci-Hub  10.1007/s11657-018-0518-5

Rodríguez AJ1, Scott D2,3, Khan B3, Hodge A4,5, English DR4,5, Giles GG4,5, Abrahamsen B6,7, Ebeling PR2,3.

  • 1 Bone and Muscle Health Research Group, Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, 246 Clayton Road, Clayton, VIC, 3146, Australia. alexander.rodriguez at monash.edu.
  • 2 Bone and Muscle Health Research Group, Department of Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, 246 Clayton Road, Clayton, VIC, 3146, Australia.
  • 3 Australian Institute for Musculoskeletal Science (AIMSS), Melbourne Medical School, The University of Melbourne, St. Albans, Australia.
  • 4 Cancer Epidemiology and Intelligence Division, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, VIC, 3004, Australia.
  • 5 Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3052, Australia.
  • 6 Odense Patient Data Explorative Network, Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, J.B. Winsløws Vej 9 A, 3. Sal, 5000, Odense, Denmark.
  • 7 Department of Medicine, Holbæk Hospital, Smedelundsgade 60, 4300, Holbæk, Denmark.

The risk of mortality associated with high dietary calcium is uncertain. Unlike a highly publicised study in Swedish women, high dietary calcium intake in men-not women-was associated with increased all-cause mortality.

PURPOSE:
The association of dietary calcium with mortality is controversial. A study of women from the Swedish Mammography Cohort (SMC) suggested higher calcium was associated with higher mortality risk, whilst a study of Australian adults from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS) suggested higher intakes were associated with lower mortality risk. Thus, we aimed to perform a sex-specific re-analysis of the MCCS to evaluate the association of dietary calcium with mortality outcomes and directly compare hazard estimates (95% confidence intervals) in women with those from the SMC.

METHODS:
A prospective cohort study of community-dwelling Australian adults was conducted, in which 34,627 individuals (women 20,834 (60.2%); mean ± SD, age = 54 ± 8 years) were included at baseline after excluding those with prevalent cardiovascular (CV) disease, cancer or incomplete data. Energy-adjusted dietary calcium was categorised into the following levels of consumption (mg/day): < 600, 600-999, 1000-1399 and ≥ 1400. Mortality from all-causes, any cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction was determined. Mortality hazards relative to intakes were estimated to be of 600-999 mg/day.

RESULTS:
In women, hazard estimates for calcium intake of ≥ 1400 mg/day did not reach significance for all-cause (HR = 0.85; 0.66, 1.10) or CV (HR = 1.10; 0.69, 1.81) mortality in adjusted models. In men, intakes of ≥ 1400 mg/day were associated with a 42% increased all-cause mortality risk (HR = 1.42; 1.02, 1.99). There was a trend toward increased CV mortality (HR = 1.83; 0.94, 3.55).

CONCLUSION:
Contrary to findings from a similar study conducted in Swedish women, Australian women, after adjustment for cofounders showed no increase in mortality risk with high calcium intakes possibly reflecting differences in calcium handling dynamics, diet or lifestyle factors between the two countries. We identified an increased risk for men.

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