Two pathways are often proposed for how smoking decreases vitamin D:
- Smoking decreases Calcium. and Vitamin D is used up in replacing the Calcium
- Smoking injures the body, and vitamin D is used up in repairing the body
It appears that taking Vitamin D while smoking will
- Decrease the incidence of the many health problems associated with smoking - even lung cancer
- Decrease the desire to smoke
- Increase breathing capacity
Opinion: If unable to stop smoking, please start D
- Each ng extra vitamin D associated with better breathing (and 2X better for smokers) – March 2018
- Smoking associated with 2 times fewer heart problems if high vitamin D – Sept 2016
- Breathing by ever-smokers improved by monthly Vitamin D – RCT 2017
- Both parents smoke – child’s vitamin D level was 30 percent lower and worse asthma – May 2018
- Pancreatic Cancer causes include smoking and low vitamin D, adding vitamin D might help – Jan 2017
- Chronic Periodontitis 9.6 times more likely if smoke and have poor Vitamin D Receptor – Aug 2016
- Smoking associated with 9 ng less vitamin D age 40-50 – Nov 2014
- COPD becoming suddenly worse is 30X more likely if low vitamin D – Dec 2014
- Japanese women 20X more likely to be vitamin D deficient than men, etc. – Many 2013 6.4X more likely to be deficient if smoke
- Probability of T2 diabetes increased almost 3X with smoking and low vitamin D – Oct 2010
- Darker skin smokers have lower levels of vitamin D – Feb 2015
- Off topic: A smoker costs a company 5816 dollars every year – Aug 2013
- Multiple Sclerosis - low vitamin D, low sun, smoking are the largest modifiable factors – April 2016
- Severe Myopia associated with low vitamin D and smoking (which also reduces vitamin D) - Jan 2014
- Medicare now pays for just one vitamin D test , but 20 CT scans for smokers – Feb 2015
- Lung cancer 24 percent less likely if high vitamin D (never-smoking senior women) – Sept 2017
- Search VitaminDWiki for "VITAMIN D" (SMOKE OR SMOKING) 335 results as of Jan 2018
SMOKING was in the TITLE of 22 articles in VitaminDWiki as of March 2017
Smoking While Pregnant
- Smoking while pregnant: are the problems due to low vitamin D – July 2013
- Smoking increased 2.7X the probability of low vitamin D levels in pregnancy – Sept 2013
- Gestational Diabetes 3.7 X more likely if smoke and have low vitamin D (no surprise) – Feb 2016
- Heavy smoking during pregnancy increased risk of schizophrenia 38 percent decades later (low vitamin D) – Aug 2016
- Neonates were 288 gram (0.6 lbs) heavier if mother stopped smoking while pregnant – Oct 2016
- Pre-term birth rate of pregnant smokers cut in half if take Omega-3 – RCT May 2017
- Pregnant women were 2.6 times more likely to stop smoking when given financial rewards – RCT Jan 2015
- Smoking while pregnant lowers vitamin D and increases child asthma by 3.6 X – Aug 2011
- Smoking Is Way Down in the U.S., but Not for People with Mental Illness
Scientific American Jan 2018
30% for those with mental illness (Bipolar, Schizophrenia, etc.) vs only 15% of all Americans
- Anticipate that Vitamin D would help them decrease/stop smoking - Henry Lahore, founder of VitaminDWiki
- Stop Smoking after fracture to speed up healing - June 2010
- Smoking and Your Bones PDF file from University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
- Breathing Easier with Vitamin D
- Why Smokers Need More Vitamin D Life Extension Foundation, July 2012
- Vitamin D May Delay Deterioration of Smokers' Lungs: Study Yahoo, July 2012
- Vitamin D Can Help the Lungs of Smokers Slideshow,
Vitamin D reduces depression, weight gain, etc which typically occur when trying to stop smoking. Vitamin D also makes you feel healthier
- Benefits of Vitamin D3 for Smokers SF Gate, probably early 2013
- Smokers are 3X more likely to suffer from chronic back pain
but quitting can ease symptoms, Daily Mail Nov 2014
- Smoking can cause permanent damage to DNA HealthDay Sept 2016
Summary of 16 studies. Smoking alters 7,000 human genes (1/3 of total human), no comment on altering genes in gut, etc,
Most of the genes recover in 7 years, but some genes still changed 30 years after stopping smoking
- Why is smoking more dangerous for the poorest in society? Dr. Grimes blog post Oct 2013
"poor low social class groups have the lowest exposure to the sun and the lowest vitamin D levels"
Prospective associations between vitamin D status, vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms, and risk of tobacco-related cancers.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Oct 7. pii: ajcn110510. [Epub ahead of print]
Deschasaux M1, Souberbielle JC2, Latino-Martel P3, Sutton A4, Charnaux N4, Druesne-Pecollo N3, Galan P3, Hercberg S5, Le Clerc S6, Kesse-Guyot E3, Ezzedine K7, Touvier M3.
Experimental evidence has suggested that vitamin D may be protective against tobacco-related cancers through the inhibition of the formation of tumors induced by tobacco carcinogens. To our knowledge, only one previous epidemiologic study investigated the association between vitamin D status and tobacco-related cancer risk, and no study has focused on vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms.
Our objective was to prospectively study the association between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH)D concentrations, vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms, and risk of tobacco-related cancers.
A total of 209 tobacco-related cancers were diagnosed within the SU.VI.MAX (Supplémentation en vitamines et minéraux antioxydants) cohort (1994-2007) and were matched with 418 controls as part of a nested case-control study. Tobacco-related cancers (i.e., cancers for which tobacco is one of the risk factors) included several sites in the respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and urinary systems. Total plasma 25(OH)D was assessed with the use of an electrochemoluminescent assay. Polymorphisms were determined with the use of a TaqMan assay. Conditional logistic regression models were computed.
A 25(OH)D concentration ≥30 ng/mL was associated with reduced risk of tobacco-related cancers (OR for ≥30 vs. <30 ng/mL: 0.59; 95% CI 0.35, 0.99; P = 0.046). This association was observed in former and current smokers (OR for ≥30 vs. <30 ng/mL: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.84; P = 0.01) but not in never smokers (P = 0.8). The vitamin D receptor (VDR) FokI AA genotype and retinoid X receptor (RXR) rs7861779 TT genotype were associated with increased risk of tobacco-related cancers [OR for homozygous mutant type (MT) vs. wild type (WT): 1.87; 95% CI: 1.08, 3.23; P-trend = 0.02; OR for heterozygous type (HT) plus MT vs. WT: 1.60; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.38; P = 0.02].
In this prospective study, high vitamin D status [25(OH)D concentration ≥30 ng/mL] was associated with decreased risk of tobacco-related cancers, especially in smokers. These results, which are supported by mechanistic plausibility, suggest that vitamin D may contribute to the prevention of tobacco-induced cancers in smokers and deserve additional investigation. The SU.VI.MAX trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428.
Eugenia Cutillas-Marco1,*, Amparo Fuertes-Prosper2, William B. Grant3, Maria Morales-Suárez-Varela4,5
Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine; Volume 28, Issue 3, pages 159–161, June 2012
From conclusion: Smoking was associated with an increased risk of hypovitaminosis D (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.00–3.35).
- Pubmed search for (smoking) AND "vitamin d" in title or abstract got 1246 articles March 2017
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition December 1999, Volume 53, Number 12, Pages 920-926
Results: Fifty percent were current smokers. Smokers had significantly reduced levels of serum 25OHD (P=0.02), 1,25(OH)2D (P=0.001), and PTH (P<0.001). There was no difference in serum ionized calcium between smokers and non-smokers. We found a negative effect of smoking on serum osteocalcin (P=0.01), while urinary pyridinolines were similar in the two groups. The small differences in lifestyle between the two groups could not explain these findings. Smokers had small but significant reductions in bone mineral density.
Measurements and Main Results: In the overall cohort, there was no significant effect of vitamin D deficiency on lung function nor on lung function decline.
In both cross-sectional and longitudinal multivariable models there was effect modification by vitamin D status on the association between smoking and lung function.
Cross-sectional analysis revealed lower lung function in current smokers with vitamin D deficiency (FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC, p? 0.0002) and longitudinal analysis showed more rapid rates of decline in FEV1 (p=0.023) per pack-year of smoking in subjects with vitamin D deficiency as compared to subjects who were vitamin D sufficient.
Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency was associated with lower lung function and more rapid lung function decline in smokers over 20 years in this longitudinal cohort of elderly men. This suggests that vitamin D sufficiency may have a protective effect against the damaging effects of smoking on lung function. Future studies should seek to confirm this finding in the context of smoking and other exposures that affect lung function.
A few more Articles
The effect of cigarette smoke exposure on vitamin D level and biochemical parameters of mothers and neonates May 2013
- 9.4 ng smokers, 11 ng non-smokers; smoking also reduced Calcium levels
Inhibition of vitamin d receptor translocation by cigarette smoking extracts. Nov 2012, full text on-line
- passive smoking increased the risk of still birth by 23% and
- was linked to a 13% increased risk of congenital birth defects.
Fact 1 Smoking decreases vitamin D
Fact 2 Low vitamin D is associated with mental illness
Hypothesis: smoking decreases vitamin D, which increases mental illness
- one example above: Low vitamin D was 1.8 X more likely among smokers – June 2012
- People With Mental Illness More Likely to Be Smokers, Study Finds NY Times Feb 2013
40% of men and 34% of women with mental illness smoke.compared with one in five adults without mental illness
Adults with mental illness smoke about a third of all the cigarettes in the United States
Speculation by VitaminDWiki: Would people with adequate level of vitamin D be less likely to start smoking?
1 page: How Does Vitamin D Assist Smoking Cessation?
Vitamin D is said to play a crucial role in the stop smoking process.
It is connected to dwindling rates of many forms of cancer, including lung cancer.
In his book titled: “Quitting Cold: A Guide to Quit Smoking,” Carling Kalicak states that vitamin D is also good for bringing depression and stress to the barest minimum.
These 2 withdrawal symptoms (stress and depression) manifest in the first few days of smoking cessation.
Kalicak further recommends that smokers start consuming vitamin D supplements one to two weeks before dropping off cigarettes.
It is no secret that smoking is disastrous for the lungs.
Studies have suggested that vitamin A helps bolster the minuscule hair-like objects in the lungs known as "cilia."
Cilia play an important role in cleaning and protecting the lungs.
Like vitamin A, it is important to take vitamin C when recovering from a smoking addiction because it helps counteract some of the damage that tobacco use does to the body.
However, vitamin C also helps with nicotine cravings. While smoking has been shown to reduce the amount of vitamin C in the body, large doses of the vitamin potentially reduce cravings.
Vitamin D has a wide range of health benefits, including being associated with lower rates of cancer.
This beneficial vitamin has also been proven to have mental health benefits, such as stress reduction.
Anybody who has attempted to quit smoking is able to tell you the importance of reducing stress during the process.
Magnesium supplements are sometimes recommended for those trying to quit smoking.
Taking magnesium helps ease anxiety and reduce intense nicotine cravings.
New York Times (nothing about vitamin D)
- Previously 500,000 deaths/year from 21 diseases
cancers of the esophagus, stomach, colon, liver, pancreas, larynx, lung, bladder, kidney, cervix, lip and oral cavity; acute myeloid leukemia;
diabetes; heart disease; stroke; atherosclerosis; aortic aneurysm; other artery diseases; chronic lung disease; pneumonia; influenza; and tuberculosis.
- Study added 60,000 deaths/year infection, kidney disease, intestinal disease caused by inadequate blood flow, and heart and lung ailments not previously attributed to tobacco.
- Smokers on average, they die more than a decade before nonsmokers
- Smokers were also six times more likely to die from a rare illness caused by insufficient blood flow to the intestines.
- Study is behind a $20 paywall
Newstalk (nothing about Vitamin D)
- "Not only do cigarettes cause six million annual deaths – and rising – they hit healthcare and productivity hard around the world..."
- "A new study by the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the US National Cancer Institute estimates that roughly $269 billion in tax revenues was taken in 2013/14. This figure only takes care of roughly one-quarter of the expense of healthcare and lost productivity."
1α, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 counteracts the effects of cigarette smoke in airway epithelial cells
Cellular Immunology, doi:10.1016/j.cellimm.2015.03.004
Ruhui Zhanga, Haijin Zhaoa, Hangming Donga, Fei Zoub, Shaoxi Caia, ,
a Department of Respiratory, Chronic Airways Diseases Laboratory, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
b School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
Received 5 December 2014, Revised 18 February 2015, Accepted 13 March 2015, Available online 18 March 2015
Cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) alter calpain-1 expression via ERK signaling pathway in bronchial epithelial cells. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) inhibits cigarette smoke-induced epithelial barrier disruption.
This study was aimed to explore whether the 1,25D3 counteracted the CSE effects in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE). In particular, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and permeability, expression and distribution of E-cadherin and β-catenin, calpain-1 expression, and ERK phosphorylation were assessed in the CSE-stimulated 16HBE cells. The CSE induced the ERK phosphorylation, improved the calpain-1 expression, increased the distribution anomalies and the cleaving of E-cadherin and β-catenin, and resulted in the TER reduction and the permeability increase. The 1,25D3 reduced these pathological changes. The 1,25D3 mediated effects were associated with a reduced ERK phosphorylation.
In conclusion, the present study provides compelling evidences that the 1,25D3 may be considered a possible valid therapeutic option in controlling the cigarette smoke-induced epithelial barrier disruption.
|Vitamin D deficient diet||<100 IU/kg||17–20 ng/ml.|
|Control diet||1000 IU/kg||75–90 ng/ml|
Mice exposed to the smoke were second generation mice on the diet
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic disease characterized by a progressive expiratory airflow limitation and is associated with chronic inflammation in the airways and lung parenchyma . In the majority of cases, this inflammatory response in COPD is initiated by long-term exposure to cigarette smoke (CS), which triggers a series of events that damage the airways and terminal airspaces, leading to lung function decline and emphysema.
A great many charts and microphotographs in the PDF
Details and PDF on VitaminDWiki
Evaluation of the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and tobacco use disorder
Tijen Şengezer, Rabia Nazik Yüksel, Tuğba Babacan, Hüseyin Can, Nesrin Dilbaz.
Objective: In recent years; vitamin D, being a steroid hormone with neuroprotective and anti-oxidant effects apart from the effects on musculoskeletal system and endocrine system has been emphasized and studies on the relation of metabolic diseases, malignancies, neuropsychiatric diseases with vitamin D has been performed. A pandemic deficiency of vitamin D is mentioned all around the world. Although it has been reported that there is a relation between tobacco consumption and vitamin D; literature is limited and no data from Turkey regarding to the tobacco consumption and vitamin D has been reported.
To evaluate vitamin D levels in individuals admitted to our hospital’s ‘smoking cessation unit’ and accordingly, to investigate the relation of vitamin D levels with tobacco dependence. Methods: Seventy-two cases between ages of 17-69 referring to smoking cessation unit were included in our study. Retrospectively, demographic data form the patients’ files, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) forms were examined and levels of vitamin D were recorded. Whether the parameters conform the normal distribution or not is evaluated by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In statistical analyses; Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskall-Wallis H test, one way ANOVA were applied. p<0.05 level was accepted as statistically significant.
Results: Mean age of the cases was 46.5±12.3 (17-69) years, 36 of them (50%) were female. The average years of smoking was 25.6±12.0 (1-50) years, average daily cigarette use at admission was 21.1±9.7 (2-60), average score of FTND was 6.2±2.4 (1-10). A statistical significance was determined among sex groups by means of vitamin D levels. A low but statistically significant and inverse relation has been observed between vitamin D levels and BDI score. Considering the year of smoking, height, weight, age, score of FTND and BAIQ; no statistical significance has been determined between these variables and vitamin D levels.
Conclusion: Tobacco use has a relation with low levels of 25(OH)D. Although the mechanisms regarding to tobacco consumption and vitamin D deficiency are not enlightened yet; the evaluation of vitamin D levels in the routine examination of tobacco consumers, replacement of vitamin D if there is any deficiency and their exposure to daylight will be beneficial considering the neuroprotective and anti-oxidant effects of vitamin D.
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
- Hertfordshire, which has population of more than 1.1. million.
- The time frame for improving health is set at nine months for the obese in particular; those with a body mass index over 40 must reduce the number by 15% over that time period, and those with a BMI over 30 are given a target of 10%.
- The target for smokers is eight weeks or more without a cigarette — with a breath test to prove it.
In 1965, 42.4% of US adults smoked, 15.1% in 2017
The habit is still responsible for about 1 in 5 US deaths
“People smoke because of the nicotine, but they die because of the tar,”
FDA is trying to encourage getting nicotine without the tar
Low Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Tobacco-Related Cancer
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Note - this is an association of >9,000 Dutch people
There is a possibility that a smoker who increases their vitamin D levels will have less tabacco-related cancer
Google Scholar found 72 studies which referenced this paper as of April 2018 - example titles
Molecular link between vitamin D and cancer prevention - 2013
Vitamin D and cancer risk and mortality: state of the science, gaps, and challenges - 2017
Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and lung cancer risk and survival: A dose–response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies - 2017
Smokers with > 30 ng level of vitamin D had 0.43 the risk of getting tobbaco-related cancer - Nov 2015
Prospective associations between vitamin D status, vitamin D-related gene polymorphisms, and risk of tobacco-related cancers.
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki