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Overview Kidney Stones and vitamin D

No consensus: Increased Vitamin D ==> increased Kidney Stones
Magnesium and Vitamin K2 will probably decrease Kidney Stones
Increased Vitamin D + Decreased Calcium will probably decrease Kidney stones

Vitamin K2 might reduce the incidence of Kidney Stones

Magnesium appears to both prevent and treat Kidney stones > 900,000 hits Jan 2013

Hypothesis: Elevated serum vitamin D was a sign of the body healing and ejecting a kidney stone

Summer Heat & Kidney Stones - Why Summer Is Kidney Stone Season
Drinking more of the right fluids can help you avoid summer kidney stone flareups


Seasonal episodes of kidney stones may be related to summer or heat waves as the body lose fluid through perspiration (sweating) and urine...

How to Prevent Kidney Stones in Summer. Kidney stones form when the body doesn't properly flush out minerals and chemicals ingested, such as calcium, ...

Seasonal variations in urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium ... by J G?uszek - 1978
probable that the lack of seasonal changes in calciuria may be connected first ... In the summer, patients with renal stones and healthy subjects show a ...

How summer affects your health... for good or ill |5 Jun 2009 ... KIDNEY STONES (improves). Summer is known as 'kidney stone season' by medics because they see twice as many of them as in winter. ...

Why oral calcium supplements may reduce renal stone disease ...by C Williams - 2001 -
Seasonal variations in the composition of urine in relation to calcium stone-formation. ... A common molecular basis for three inherited kidney stone diseases.

Newsletter by Dr. Cannell: Does vitamin D cause kidney stones?

  • Kidney stones are just like influenza. Scientists have not seen the forest for the trees yet.
  • In winter, we get more influenza due to vitamin D deficiency.
  • In summer, we eject kidney stones due to elevated serum levels of vitamin D healing the kidney.

Some infants had kidney stones (without symptoms), stopping Vitamin D DID NOT reduce stone formation - April 2024

Urinary stone in infants; should vitamin D prophylaxis be stopped?
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpurol.2024.04.006

Grassroots web page on Kidney Stones

Dr. Heaney's Comments:

  • Kidney stones are of many types and have many causes.
  • The most common types in the US are calcium oxalate stones.
  • The stone should be analyzed so as to determine the approach to treatment.
  • Whatever the stone type, stone formers have a defect in kidney production of a solution stabilizer, normally secreted into the urine.
    • This keeps the commonly supersaturated urine from forming precipitates (which then aggregate into stones).
  • There are two basic approaches indicated in most cases.
    • One is to drink large amounts of water each day to keep the urine diluted
    • The second is to reduce the urine content of components that form precipitates. For example, if the stone is a urate stone, medicines will be prescribed that reduce the body's production of uric acid. Or if the stone is calcium oxalate, large quantities of calcium should be ingested to block absorption of oxalic acid from the intestinal contents, thereby reducing the amount of oxalate that will have to be excreted through the kidneys. While high calcium intake sounds counter-intuitive, there is a solid scientific base for the recommendation, and persuasive clinical trial data showing that it works. Placing patients on low calcium diets will actually double the risk of having a second stone.
  • There are several other approaches that might be taken, but the foregoing hit the main points. It's important to remember that the basic defect (absence of a solution stabilizer) persists, so whatever strategy works will have to become permanent.
  • Vitamin D, in doses producing desirable serum levels of 25(OH)D (40-60 ng/ml or 100-150 nmol/L), does not adversely affect any of the components of this system

No extra Kidney stones when vitamin D2 added – May 2012

Effect of Vitamin D Repletion on Urinary Calcium Excretion among Kidney Stone Formers
CJASN May 2012 vol. 7 no. 5 829-834
David E. Leaf*,†, Ruslan Korets‡, Eric N. Taylor§, Jie Tang?, John R. Asplin¶, David S. Goldfarb**, Mantu Gupta‡, Gary C. Curhan†
Departments of *Medicine and
‡Urology, Columbia University, New York, New York;
†Division of Renal Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts;
§Division of Nephrology and Transplantation, Maine Medical Center, Portland, Maine;
?Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, University of Colorado, Denver, Colorado;
¶Litholink Corporation, Chicago, Illinois; and
**Nephrology Section, New York Harbor VA Healthcare System, New York, New York
Dr. David E. Leaf, Renal Division, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, 75 Francis Street, Boston MA 02115. Email: DELEAF at partners.org
M.G. and G.C.C. contributed equally to this work.

Background and objectives Despite the important role of vitamin D in maintaining bone health, many clinicians are reluctant to treat vitamin D deficiency in kidney stone formers because of the theoretical risk of increasing urinary calcium excretion. This study examined the effect of vitamin D repletion on urinary calcium excretion among stone formers.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements Participants (n=29) were recruited from urology clinics affiliated with New York Presbyterian Hospital. Enrollment criteria included a history of nephrolithiasis, urinary calcium excretion between 150 and 400 mg/d, and a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level <30 ng/ml. Participants were given oral ergocalciferol (50,000 IU/wk) for 8 weeks. Serum and 24-hour urine tests were repeated after 8 weeks.

Results Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased significantly after vitamin D repletion (17±6 and 35±10 ng/ml, P<0.001), but mean 24-hour urinary calcium excretion did not change (257±54 and 255±88 mg/d at baseline and follow-up, respectively, P=0.91). However, 11 participants had an increase in urinary calcium excretion ?20 mg/d; these participants also had an increase in urine sodium excretion, likely reflecting dietary variability. No participant experienced adverse effects from vitamin D, including hypercalcemia.

Conclusions Among stone formers with vitamin D deficiency, a limited course of vitamin D repletion does not seem to increase mean urinary calcium excretion, although a subset of individuals may have an increase. These data suggest that vitamin D therapy, if indicated, should not be withheld solely on the basis of stone disease, but 24-hour urinary calcium excretion should be monitored after repletion.

Received November 6, 2011; Accepted February 18, 2012.

See also VitaminDWiki

released Nov 30, 2010

See also web and PubMed

2 studies showing increased Kidney stones with LOW vitamin D - Vitamin D council May 2016

Does vitamin D cause kidney stones?

  • Girón-Prieto MS, et al. Analysis of vitamin D deficiency in calcium stone-forming patients. Int Urol Nephrol. 2016 Apr 19. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Ticinesi A, et al. Idiopathic Calcium Nephrolithiasis and Hypovitaminosis D: A Case-control Study. Urology. 2016 Jan;87:40-5.

Kidney stones (Calcium) associated with lower vitamin D this time – April 2016 VitaminDWiki report on one of them

Kidney stone deaths associated with LOW Vitamin D - Oct 2023

Association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations with all-cause mortality among individuals with kidney stone disease: the NHANES database prospective cohort study FREE PDF

Vitamin D, Hypercalciuria and Kidney Stones - March 2018 - possible

"It seems likely that predisposed individuals may develop hypercalciuria and kidney stones in response to vitamin D supplements"
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Review of what causes/prevents kidney stones - March 2020

Nutrients, Vitamins, Probiotics and Herbal Products: An Update of Their Role in Urolithogenesis
Urolithiasis - 2020 Mar 2, DOI: 10.1007/s00240-020-01182-x
Renato Nardi Pedro 1 2, Asad Ullah Aslam 1 3, Jibril Oyekunle Bello 1 4, Kamran Hassan Bhatti 1 5, Joseph Philipraj 1 6, Idrissa Sissoko 1 7, Giovanna Souza Vasconcellos 2, Alberto Trinchieri 1, Noor Buchholz 8 9

Nutrients, vitamins, probiotics, and herbal products may be risk factors, or alternately, protect against the formation of urinary stones. The purpose of this review was to update knowledge of the role of nutraceuticals in renal stone formation. A systematic search of the relevant literature published in PubMed in the last ten years was conducted and a narrative review of the data from the included studies was done. Search screened 513 studies that were reduced to 34 after evaluation by title and abstract; other 38 studies were retrieved by references of the selected studies.

  • Beverages high fluid intake confirmed protective effect;
    • orange juice protective effect;
    • apple or grapefruit juice not confirmed as risk factors;
    • sugar-sweetened soda and punch increased risk of stone formation.
  • Energy intake: very high energy intake increased risk factor for women (especially after menopause);
  • dietary acid load increased risk at equal levels of energy intake.
  • Macronutrients confirmed increased risk of high protein intake.
  • Calcium and Oxalate: calcium intake protective effect; oxalate intake only modest increase of risk in men and older women.
  • Metal cations zinc and iron intake no clear impact on the risk of stone formation,
  • dietary copper increased risk;
  • manganese intake reduced risk of stone formation.
  • Fruits and Vegetables decreased risk.
  • Vitamins B6 intake not associated to risk of stone formation;
  • vitamin C intake increased risk in men;
  • vitamin D or supplemental vitamin D intake not associated to increased risk in men and younger women,
    • suggestion of a higher risk in older women;
  • Probiotics Gut colonization with Oxalobacter formigenes associated to lower risk of stone formation,
  • effect of oxalate-degraders probiotics on urinary oxalate equivocal.
  • Herbal products efficacy of some herbal products demonstrated in some trials, more investigations needed to confirm their efficacy and safety.

Calcium, Vit D and Kidney stones - review of controversy - Dec 2021

Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation and Their Association with Kidney Stone Disease: A Narrative Review
Nutrients 2021, 13(12), 4363; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13124363
by Matteo Bargagli 1,2,†ORCID,Pietro Manuel Ferraro 1,2,†ORCID,Matteo Vittori 3,Gianmarco Lombardi 4,Giovanni Gambaro 4ORCID andBhaskar Somani 5,*ORCID

Kidney stone disease is a multifactorial condition influenced by both genetic predisposition and environmental factors such as lifestyle and dietary habits. Although different monogenic polymorphisms have been proposed as playing a causal role for calcium nephrolithiasis, the prevalence of these mutations in the general population and their complete pathogenetic pathway is yet to be determined.
General dietary advice for kidney stone formers includes

  • elevated fluid intake,
  • dietary restriction of sodium and animal proteins,
  • avoidance of a low calcium diet,
  • maintenance of a normal body mass index, and
  • elevated intake of vegetables and fibers.

Thus, balanced calcium consumption protects against the risk for kidney stones by reducing intestinal oxalate availability and its urinary excretion. However, calcium supplementation given between meals might increase urinary calcium excretion without the beneficial effect on oxalate. In kidney stone formers, circulating active vitamin D has been found to be increased, whereas higher plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol seems to be present only in hypercalciuric patients.
The association between nutritional vitamin D supplements and the risk for stone formation is currently not completely understood.
However, taken together, available evidence might suggest that vitamin D administration worsens the risk for stone formation in patients predisposed to hypercalciuria. In this review, we analyzed and discussed available literature on the effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on the risk for kidney stone formation.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Citrate (Potassium) decreased the incidence of Kidney Stones

ConsumerLab Sept 2021

Overview Kidney Stones and vitamin D        
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Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
16685 Kidney Stone Vit D Calcium.pdf admin 04 Dec, 2021 264.15 Kb 700
10405 Kidney stones Scragg.pdf admin 22 Aug, 2018 1.26 Mb 1364
10404 Vitamin D, Hypercalciuria and Kidney Stones.pdf admin 22 Aug, 2018 222.45 Kb 1158
9531 Kidney stones.pdf admin 17 Mar, 2018 222.45 Kb 1480