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Vitamin D levels from lowest to highest: Middle East, China. India, S EU. N EU – Dec 2019

From: Vitamin D status in Africa is worse than in other continents

Lancet Glob Health. 2019 Nov 27. pii: S2214-109X(19)30492-9. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30492-9.
Bouillon R1.  Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Following table includes information from the table in the PDF

Report Location<10 or 12 ng<20 ng
Arabi et al (2010) 9 Iran and Jordan50%**90%**
Zhang et al (2013) 5 China~ 37%~ 72%
Web 2018 India- 56%
Cashman et al (2016) 8 EU countries (adults)13%40%
Mogire et al (2019) 6 African continent18%34%
Hilger et al (2014) 2 Global7%*37%*
Herrick et al (2019) 7 USA5%18%

   * % deficient globally is probably higher. - Appears that the population size was ignored - see reference #2 below
   ** Middle East: has dark skin and air conditioning - staying out ot extreme summer heat ==> colds in the sunner
It appears that Asia has far lower average vitamin D levels than Africa ( as well 3.7X more population)

  1. Some groups in Europe believe that Vitamin D levels as low as 20 ng are OK
  2. Varous groups around the world believe that vitamin D levels should be much higher:
    30 ng, 40 ng or perhaps 50 ng see VitaminDWiki Is 50 ng of vitamin D too high, just right, or not enough

Vitamin D Levels continue going down in most places

Drop in Vitamin D levels VDW#10189

Overview Deficiency of vitamin D has the following

see wikipage: http://www.vitamindwiki.com/tiki-index.php?page_id=2533

from DSM
DSM 2014

In addition: Some groups are at higher risk of having low vitamin D

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

References (most of which are in VitaminDWiki)

  1. Bouillon R. Comparative analysis of nutritional guidelines for vitamin D. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2017; 13: 466-79.
  2. Hilger J, Friedel A, Herr R, et al. A systematic review of vitamin D status in populations worldwide. Br J Nutr 2014; 111: 23-45.
  3. Durazo-Arvizu RA, Camacho P, Bovet P, et al. 25-hydroxyvitamin D in African-origin populations at varying latitudes challenges the construct of a physiologic norm. Am J Clin Nutr 2014; 100: 908-14.
  4. Lips P, Cashman KD, Lamberg-Allardt C, et al. Current vitamin D status in European and Middle East countries and strategies to prevent vitamin D deficiency: a position statement of the European Calcified Tissue Society. Eur J Endocrinol 2019; 180: 23-54.
  5. Zhang W, Stoecklin E, Eggersdorfer M. A glimpse of vitamin D status in Mainland China. Nutrition 2013; 29: 953-57
  6. Mogire RM, Mutua A, Kimita W, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Glob Health 2019; published online Nov 27. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30457-7
  7. Herrick KA, Storandt RJ, Afful J, et al. Vitamin D status in the United States, 2011-2014. Am J Clin Nutr 2019; 110: 150-57
  8. Cashman KD, Dowling KG, Skrabakova Z, et al. Vitamin D deficiency in Europe: pandemic? Am J Clin Nutr 2016; 103: 1033-44.
  9. Arabi A, El Rassi R, El-Hajj Fuleihan G. Hypovitaminosis D in developing countries: prevalence, risk factors and outcomes. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2010; 6: 550-61.
  10. Luxwolda MF, Kuipers RS, Kema IP, van der Veer E, Dijck-Brouwer DA, Muskiet FA. Vitamin D status indicators in indigenous populations in East Africa. Eur J Nutr 2013; 52: 1115-25.
  11. Bouillon R, Marcocci C, Carmeliet G, et al. Skeletal and extraskeletal actions of vitamin D: current evidence and outstanding questions. Endocr Rev 2019; 40: 1109-51.
  12. Hess AF. Rickets, including osteomalacia and tetany. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger, 1929.
  13. Creo AL, Thacher TD, Pettifor JM, Strand MA, Fischer PR. Nutritional rickets around the world: an update. Paediatr Int Child Health 2017; 37: 84-98.
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