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Overview Prostate Cancer and Vitamin D

Vitamin D both prevents and treats Prostate Cancer somewhat

See also Prostate Cancer in VitaminDWiki

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The Meta-analysis of Prostate Cancer

Vitamin D prevents/treats Prostate Cancer much better when there is not excess Calcium
Prostate cancer risk increase with Vitamin D (other studies disagree) – meta-analysis Jan 2018 prevention
Prostate cancer reduced when 4000 IU vitamin D was added– Hollis RCT April 2015 treatment
7X increase in stage IV Prostate Cancer survival when vitamin D greater than 32 ng – May 2013
Never too late to have vitamin D - loading dose is great before Prostate Surgery

See also Prostate problem (BPH) reduced by herbs, Zinc, Vitamin D etc.

Non-agressive Prostate Cancer 1.2 X more likely if low vitamin D - Jan 2019

A Collaborative Analysis of Individual Participant Data from 19 Prospective Studies Assesses Circulating Vitamin D and Prostate Cancer Risk

Dietary supplements and prostate cancer: a systematic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials. - June 2013

Maturitas. 2013 Jun;75(2):125-30. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.03.006
Posadzki P, Lee MS, Onakpoya I, Lee HW, Ko BS, Ernst E.
Medical Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea; Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK. Electronic address: paul.posadzki at pcmd.ac.uk.

Dietary supplements are popular among patients with prostate cancer (PC). The objective of this systematic review was to critically examine double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of non-herbal dietary supplements and vitamins (NHDS) for evidence that prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were reduced in PC patients. Five databases were searched from their inception through December 2012 to identify studies that met our inclusion criteria. Methodological quality was independently assessed by two reviewers using the Cochrane tool. Eight RCTs met the eligibility criteria and were of high methodological quality. The following supplements were tested: isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, and glycitein), minerals (Se) or vitamins (vitamin D) or a combination of antioxidants, bioflavonoids, carotenoids, lycopenes, minerals (Se, Zn, Cu, and Mg), phytoestrogens, phytosterols, vitamins (B2, B6, B9, B12, C, and E), and other substances (CoQ10 and n-acetyl-l cysteine). Five RCTs reported no significant effects compared with placebo. Two RCTs reported that a combination of antioxidants, isoflavones, lycopenes, minerals, plant oestrogens and vitamins significantly decreased PSA levels compared with placebo. One RCT did not report differences in PSA levels between the groups. In conclusion, the hypothesis that dietary supplements are effective treatments for PC patients is not supported by sound clinical evidence. There are promising data for only two specific remedies, which contained a mixture of ingredients, but even for these supplements, additional high quality evidence is necessary before firm recommendations would be justified.

Using genetic proxies for lifecourse sun exposure to assess the causal relationship of sun exposure with circulating vitamin d and prostate cancer risk. - April 2013

See VitaminDWiki page People more likely to freckle are more likely to get prostate cancer (low vitamin D) – April 2013
which has the PDF

Genetic variation in the vitamin d pathway in relation to risk of prostate cancer--results from the breast and prostate cancer cohort consortium. - April 2013

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2013 Apr;22(4):688-96. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0007-T. Epub 2013 Feb 1.
Mondul AM, Shui IM, Yu K, Travis RC, Stevens VL, Campa D, Schumacher FR, Ziegler RG, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Berndt S, Crawford ED, Gapstur SM, Gaziano JM, Giovannucci E, Haiman CA, Henderson BE, Hunter DJ, Johansson M, Key TJ, Le Marchand L, Lindström S, McCullough ML, Navarro C, Overvad K, Palli D, Purdue M, Stampfer MJ, Weinstein SJ, Willett WC, Yeager M, Chanock SJ, Trichopoulos D, Kolonel LN, Kraft P, Albanes D.
National Cancer Institute, NIH, 6120 Executive Blvd, Suite 320, Rockville, MD 20852, USA. mondulam at mail.nih.gov

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that vitamin D status may be associated with prostate cancer risk although the direction and strength of this association differs between experimental and observational studies. Genome-wide association studies have identified genetic variants associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status. We examined prostate cancer risk in relation to single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in four genes shown to predict circulating levels of 25(OH)D.

METHODS: SNP markers localized to each of four genes (GC, CYP24A1, CYP2R1, and DHCR7) previously associated with 25(OH)D were genotyped in 10,018 cases and 11,052 controls from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium. Logistic regression was used to estimate the individual and cumulative association between genetic variants and risk of overall and aggressive prostate cancer.

RESULTS: We observed a decreased risk of aggressive prostate cancer among men with the allele in rs6013897 near CYP24A1 associated with lower serum 25(OH)D [per A allele], OR, 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80-0.93; Ptrend = 0.0002) but an increased risk for nonaggressive disease (per A allele: OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17; Ptrend = 0.002). Examination of a polygenic score of the four SNPs revealed statistically significantly lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer among men with a greater number of low vitamin D alleles (OR for 6-8 vs. 0-1 alleles, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44-0.98; Ptrend = 0.003).

In this large, pooled analysis, genetic variants related to lower 25(OH)D levels were associated with a decreased risk of aggressive prostate cancer.
IMPACT: Our genetic findings do not support a protective association between loci known to influence vitamin D levels and prostate cancer risk.

Vitamin d levels in subjects with prostate cancer compared to age-matched controls. 2012

Prostate Cancer. 2012;2012:524206. doi: 10.1155/2012/524206
Yaturu S, Zdunek S, Youngberg B.
Department of Endocrinology, Stratton VA Medical Center, Albany, NY 12208, USA.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer in men worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in the United States. Vitamin D is considered to have anticancer properties, currently thought to work mainly through its nuclear receptor or vitamin D receptor. In this retrospective study, we compared vitamin D levels in subjects with PCa with those of age-matched men without PCa. Study subjects included 479 in each group with a mean age of 73 and a mean creatinine of 1.05 and 1.15. Levels of 25 (OH) vitamin D were 28.4 ± 0.54 and 28.05 ± 0.62 in subjects with and without PCa. Levels of 1,25 (OH) vitamin D were 47.2 ± 6.8 and 47.1 ± 7.11 in subjects with and without PCa. In contrast to other studies, we did not find a significant difference in vitamin D levels. Among prostate cancer patients, vitamin D levels correlated positively with age (r = 0.12, P < 0.02), and were negatively associated with BMI (r = -0.13, P = 0.003), glucose (r = -0.12, P < 0.007), HbA1C (r = -0.16, P = 0.001), and PTH (r = -0.21; P < 0.0001). The data do not show the causal effect of vitamin D levels on PCa.
Full text on-line

Getting sun frequently reduces colon, breast, and prostate cancer - and NHL - April 2013

Is prevention of cancer by sun exposure more than just the effect of vitamin D? A systematic review of epidemiological studies.
Eur J Cancer. 2013 Apr;49(6):1422-36. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2012.11.001. Epub 2012 Dec 10.
van der Rhee H, Coebergh JW, de Vries E.
Department of Dermatology, Hagaziekenhuis, P.O. Box 40551, Leyweg 275, 2504 LN Den Haag, Zuid-Holland, The Netherlands. hvdrhee at casema.nl

The number of studies reporting on the association between sunlight exposure, vitamin D and cancer risk is steadily increasing. We reviewed all published case-control and cohort studies concerning colorectal-, prostate-, breast cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and both sunlight and vitamin D to update our previous review and to verify if the epidemiological evidence is in line with the hypothesis that the possible preventive effect of sunlight on cancer might be mediated not only by vitamin D but also by other pathways. We found that almost all epidemiological studies suggest that chronic (not intermittent) sun exposure is associated with a reduced risk of colorectal-, breast-, prostate cancer and NHL. In colorectal- and to a lesser degree in breast cancer vitamin D levels were found to be inversely associated with cancer risk. In prostate cancer and NHL, however, no associations were found. These findings are discussed and it is concluded that the evidence that sunlight is a protective factor for colorectal-, prostate-, breast cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is still accumulating. The same conclusion can be drawn concerning high vitamin D levels and the risk of colorectal cancer and possibly breast cancer. Particularly in prostate cancer and NHL other sunlight potentiated and vitamin D independent pathways, such as modulation of the immune system and the circadian rhythm, and the degradation of folic acid might play a role in reduced cancer risk as well.

1st page of letter to editor on this article by Dr. Grant is in the thumbnail

Vitamin D(3) supplementation, low-risk prostate cancer, and health disparities. Dec 2012

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2012 Dec 7. pii: S0960-0760(12)00245-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2012.11.012.
Hollis BW, Marshall DT, Savage SJ, Garrett-Mayer E, Kindy MS, Gattoni-Celli S.
Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, 169 Ashley Avenue, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.

Vitamin D promotes the differentiation of prostate cancer cells, raising the possibility that vitamin D deficiency over time may contribute to the progression from subclinical prostate cancer to clinical disease. Since low-risk prostate cancers are monitored over time in an effort to determine which progress into clinically important, more aggressive cancers, they provide an excellent model in which to study, over an extended period of time, the effects of enhancing vitamin D status and related changes in tumor progression. This is particularly relevant to African-American men, who exhibit a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency as well as higher incidence of prostate cancer and higher mortality rates from prostate cancer than Caucasians. Our research team has recently completed an open-label clinical trial aimed at assessing the safety and potential efficacy of vitamin D(3) supplementation at 4000 international units (IU) per day for one year in subjects diagnosed with early stage, low-risk prostate cancer. The results of this clinical study suggest that supplementation with vitamin D(3) at 4000IU per day may benefit patients with early stage, low-risk prostate cancer on active surveillance, because of the improved outcome (a decreased number of positive cores at repeat biopsy) in more than half of the subjects enrolled in the trial. We also observed that, after one year of supplementation, there was no difference in circulating levels of vitamin D between African-American and Caucasian subjects who completed the study. These clinical results also suggest that robust and sustained vitamin D(3) supplementation can reduce prostate cancer-related health disparities in African-American men and that these health disparities are at least in part the result of widespread hypovitaminosis D within the African-American population. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'.

Update on Evidence that Support a Role of Solar Ultraviolet-B Irradiance in Reducing Cancer Risk. - Jan 2013

Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2013 Jan 1;13(1):140-6.
Grant WB.
Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center, P.O. Box 641603, San Francisco, CA 94164-1603, USA. wbgrant at infionline.net.

The ultraviolet-B (UVB)-vitamin D-cancer hypothesis was proposed in 1980 yet has not been fully accepted. Ecological studies based on geographical variations of cancer rates with respect to solar UVB doses have supported the hypothesis for about 20 cancers. This paper reviews the evidence from studies of personal or group UVB irradiance. Studies have associated personal UVB irradiance with reduced risk for breast, colon, endometrial, prostate, and renal cancer, as well as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). However, some studies have also found increased risk of NHL from UV irradiance, probably due to immunosuppression by UVA near 370 nm. Several related approaches have also been used to study the hypothesis. Studies in Norway and the UK found that diagnosis in summer or fall is associated with increased survival rates for breast, colon, lung, and prostate cancer, as well as Hodgkin's lymphoma. Diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer is associated with reduced risk of several cancers in sunny countries, but not often in highlatitude countries. Living at higher surface elevation is associated with reduced risk of some cancers. In a recent analyzed study of cancer rates for 54 occupations in Nordic countries, a UVB index based on standardized incidence ratios of lip cancer less those for lung cancer was inversely correlated with 15 types of cancer for males, but only four types for females. This ecological study provides additional evidence that UVB doses at high latitudes are adequate to reduce the risk of cancer, but requires considerable time outside to produce sufficient vitamin D. Because only vitamin D production has been proposed to explain the UVB-cancer link, studies reviewed in this paper should be considered strong evidence for the hypothesis.

Vitamin d, sunlight, and the epidemiology of prostate cancer. - Jan 2013

Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2013 Jan 1;13(1):45-57.
Schwartz GG.
Comprehensive Cancer Center of Wake Forest University, Medical Center Blvd, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA. gschwart at wakehealth.edu.

The hypothesis that vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of clinical prostate cancer has stimulated an extensive body of research. Ecologic studies have shown that mortality rates from prostate cancer are inversely correlated with levels of ultraviolet radiation, the principal source of vitamin D. Human prostate cells express receptors for 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D which exerts pleitropic anticancer effects on these cells in vitro and in animal models. Moreover, normal prostate cells synthesize 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D from circulating levels of 25-OHD, whose levels are dependent on exposure to ultraviolet light. Analytic epidemiologic studies of vitamin D and prostate cancer have focused on polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR), on serum vitamin D levels, and on solar exposure. A role for VDR polymorphisms in prostate cancer risk and progression is established. Prospective studies of serum 25(OH)D do not support a protective role for higher levels of 25(OH)D on prostate cancer risk overall, but a role for vitamin D deficiency is supported by several studies. Conversely, a growing body of evidence implicates low levels of 25-OHD with an increased risk of fatal prostate cancer. The results of most epidemiologic studies of sunlight exposure are consistent with a protective effect of exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The discrepancy between the results of studies of solar exposure and studies of serum 25-OHD may be related to methodological differences and to uncertainties regarding the critical period for vitamin D exposure. Additionally, both high dietary intake of calcium and high levels of calcium in serum are positively associated with prostate cancer risk. The relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels and risk of prostate cancer may differ by calcium intake.
Full text on-line

Prostate cancer, vitamin D and genes - March 2013

Associations of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and vitamin D pathway genes with prostate-specific antigen progression in men with localized prostate cancer undergoing active monitoring.
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2013 Mar;22(2):121-5. doi: 10.1097/CEJ.0b013e3283584954.
Gilbert R, Metcalfe C, Fraser WD, Lewis S, Donovan J, Hamdy F, Neal DE, Lane JA, Martin RM, Tilling K.
School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 2PS, UK. becky.gilbert at bristol.ac.uk

Current diagnostic tests cannot differentiate the majority of prostate cancers with a low likelihood of progression from the minority with more aggressive potential. We examined whether the measures of vitamin D were associated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time in men undergoing active monitoring. We examined the associations of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), and vitamin D pathway polymorphisms with PSA doubling time in 490 men undergoing active monitoring for localized prostate cancer within a UK population-based cohort study [mean follow-up 4.4 years (range: 0.3-7.6)]. Repeat PSA measurements were analyzed using multilevel models. There was no evidence that circulating 25(OH)D levels, 1,25(OH)2D levels, or vitamin D pathway polymorphisms were associated with postdiagnosis PSA doubling time. Stratifying the results by prostate cancer grade at diagnosis (high grade or low grade) did not alter the results. We found no evidence that either circulating 25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, or vitamin D pathway polymorphisms were associated with PSA doubling time in men undergoing active monitoring for localized prostate cancer. Future studies should examine the associations of variation in vitamin D with clinical outcomes (metastases and death).

4,000 IU of Vitamin D for a yars reduces positive cores - July 2012

Vitamin D3 supplementation at 4000 international units per day for one year results in a decrease of positive cores at repeat biopsy in subjects with low-risk prostate cancer under active surveillance.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Jul;97(7):2315-24. doi: 10.1210/jc.2012-1451
Marshall DT, Savage SJ, Garrett-Mayer E, Keane TE, Hollis BW, Horst RL, Ambrose LH, Kindy MS, Gattoni-Celli S.
Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, USA.

CONTEXT: We wanted to investigate vitamin D in low-risk prostate cancer.
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to determine whether vitamin D(3) supplementation at 4000 IU/d for 1 yr is safe and would result in a decrease in serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or in the rate of progression.
DESIGN: In this open-label clinical trial (Investigational New Drug 77,839), subjects were followed up until repeat biopsy.
SETTING: All subjects were enrolled through the Medical University of South Carolina and the Ralph H. Johnson Veterans Affairs Medical Center, both in Charleston, SC.
PATIENTS AND OTHER PARTICIPANTS: All subjects had a diagnosis of low-risk prostate cancer. Fifty-two subjects were enrolled in the study, 48 completed 1 yr of supplementation, and 44 could be analyzed for both safety and efficacy objectives.
INTERVENTION: The intervention included vitamin D(3) soft gels (4000 IU).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adverse events were monitored throughout the study. PSA serum levels were measured at entry and every 2 months for 1 yr. Biopsy procedures were performed before enrollment (for eligibility) and after 1 yr of supplementation.
RESULTS: No adverse events associated with vitamin D(3) supplementation were observed. No significant changes in PSA levels were observed. However, 24 of 44 subjects (55%) showed a decrease in the number of positive cores or decrease in Gleason score; five subjects (11%) showed no change; 15 subjects (34%) showed an increase in the number of positive cores or Gleason score.
CONCLUSION: Patients with low-risk prostate cancer under active surveillance may benefit from vitamin D(3) supplementation at 4000 IU/d.
Note: This study has a separate page on VitaminDWiki = Low risk Prostate Cancer decreased with 4,000 IU of vitamin D – July 2012

Lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer - May 2012

Asian J Androl. 2012 May;14(3):365-74. doi: 10.1038/aja.2011.142.
Wilson KM, Giovannucci EL, Mucci LA.
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

The prevention of lethal prostate cancer is a critical public health challenge that would improve health and reduce suffering from this disease. In this review, we discuss the evidence surrounding specific lifestyle and dietary factors in the prevention of lethal prostate cancer. We present a summary of evidence for the following selected behavioral risk factors: obesity and weight change, physical activity, smoking, antioxidant intake, vitamin D and calcium, and coffee intake.
Full text on-line

Ultraviolet index and racial differences in prostate cancer incidence and mortality. - June 2-16

Cancer. 2013 Jun 6. doi: 10.1002/cncr.28127.
Taksler GB, Cutler DM, Giovannucci E, Smith MR, Keating NL.
Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York.

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that low levels of vitamin D may be associated with prostate cancer, and darker skin reduces the body's ability to generate vitamin D from sunshine. The impact of sunshine on racial disparities in prostate cancer incidence and mortality is unknown.
METHODS: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program database, the authors calculated age-adjusted prostate cancer incidence rates among black and white men aged ≥45 years by race and county between 2000 and 2009 (N = 906,381 men). Similarly, county-level prostate cancer mortality rates were calculated from the National Vital Statistics System (N = 288,874). These data were linked with the average monthly solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation index by county and data regarding health, wellness, and demographics. Multivariable regression analysis was used to assess whether increases in the UV index (in deciles) moderated the association between black race and the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer.
RESULTS: Compared with counties in the lowest UV index decile, prostate cancer incidence rates for white and black men were lower in counties with a higher UV index (all Ps ≤ .0.051). Incidence rates were higher for black men versus white men, but the difference by race was less for counties in the fourth to fifth UV index deciles versus those in the first decile (Ps ≤ 0.02). Mortality rates also were found to decrease with increasing UV index for white men (Ps ≤ 0.003), but increase for black men, and an unexplained increase in racial differences in mortality rates was observed with an increasing UV index.
CONCLUSIONS: Racial disparities in the incidence of prostate cancer were larger in some areas with less sunshine. Additional research should confirm the findings of the current study and assess whether optimizing vitamin D levels among black men can reduce disparities.

SNP of VDBP genes associated wih Prostate Cancer risk and grade, but not stage - Dec 2014

Associations of vitamin D pathway genes with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin-D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D, and prostate cancer: a nested case–control study
Cancer Causes & Control
Rebecca Gilbert, Carolina Bonilla, Chris Metcalfe, Sarah Lewis, David M. Evans, William D. Fraser, John P. Kemp, Jenny L. Donovan, Freddie C. Hamdy, David E. Neal, … show all 14
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki.

Vitamin D pathway single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are potentially useful proxies for investigating whether circulating vitamin D metabolites [total 25-hydroxyvitamin-D, 25(OH)D; 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin, 1,25(OH)2D] are causally related to prostate cancer. We investigated associations of sixteen SNPs across seven genes with prostate-specific antigen-detected prostate cancer.
In a nested case–control study (within the ProtecT trial), we estimated odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) quantifying associations between SNPs and prostate cancer. Subgroup analyses investigated whether associations were stronger in men who had high/low sun exposure [a proxy for 25(OH)D]. We quantified associations of SNPs with stage (T1–T2/T3–T4) and grade (<7/≥7). Multiple variant scores included SNPs encoding proteins involved in 25(OH)D synthesis and metabolism.
We included 1,275 prostate cancer cases (141 locally advanced, 385 high grades) and 2,062 healthy controls. Vitamin D-binding protein SNPs were associated with prostate cancer (rs4588-A: OR 1.20, CI 1.01, 1.41, p = 0.04; rs7041-T: OR 1.19, CI 1.02, 1.38, p = 0.03). Low 25(OH)D metabolism score was associated with high (vs low) grade (OR 0.76, CI 0.63, 0.93, p = 0.01); there was a similar association of its component variants: rs6013897-A in CYP24A1 (OR 0.78, CI 0.60, 1.01, p = 0.06) and rs10877012-T in CYP27B1 (OR 0.80, CI 0.63, 1.02, p = 0.07). There was no evidence that associations differed by level of sun exposure.
We found some evidence that vitamin D pathway SNPs were associated with prostate cancer risk and grade, but not stage.
There was no evidence of an association in men with deficient vitamin D (measured by having low sun exposure).

See also web


Increased risk of Prostate Cancer if consume dairy products (high grown factor in cow's milk) - 2023

Dr, Greger Video and transcript Jan 2023
__Dairy Consumption and Cancers of the Prostate and Colon - Greger video + transcript + charts, May 2023

Switching to a plant-based diet reversed Prostate Cancer, even after failed surgery - 2021

Treating Advanced Prostate Cancer with Diet Dr. Greger Feb 2021
Best Supplements for Prostate Cancer Video by Greger Nov 2021
Whole pomegranate, not just pomegranate extact, works extremely well

  • Greger category listing has 29 items along with related searches

Low Zinc associated with BPH - meta-analysis - 2016

Documented an association between low Zinc and Prostate Cancer but high Zinc and BPH
". Serum zinc concentration may be used as a tool for the diagnosis and screening of prostate disease"
(( Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Prostate Cancer Review: Genetics, Diagnosis, Treatment Options, and Alternative Approaches - Sept 2022

Prostate cancer is one of the malignancies that affects men and significantly contributes to increased mortality rates in men globally. Patients affected with prostate cancer present with either a localized or advanced disease. In this review, we aim to provide a holistic overview of prostate cancer, including the diagnosis of the disease, mutations leading to the onset and progression of the disease, and treatment options. Prostate cancer diagnoses include a digital rectal examination, prostate-specific antigen analysis, and prostate biopsies. Mutations in certain genes are linked to the onset, progression, and metastasis of the cancer. Treatment for localized prostate cancer encompasses active surveillance, ablative radiotherapy, and radical prostatectomy. Men who relapse or present metastatic prostate cancer receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), salvage radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Currently, available treatment options are more effective when used as combination therapy; however, despite available treatment options, prostate cancer remains to be incurable. There has been ongoing research on finding and identifying other treatment approaches such as the use of traditional medicine, the application of nanotechnologies, and gene therapy to combat prostate cancer, drug resistance, as well as to reduce the adverse effects that come with current treatment options. In this article, we summarize the genes involved in prostate cancer, available treatment options, and current research on alternative treatment options.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

PhD dissertation on Vitamin D to prevent Prostate Cancer - June 2023

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

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ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
21335 The effects of vitamin D supplementation on prostate cancer.pdf admin 19 Jun, 2024 1.08 Mb 11
19160 Alternate PC treatments.pdf admin 31 Jan, 2023 1.38 Mb 216
15364 Zinc BPH Meta 2016.pdf admin 03 Apr, 2021 1.86 Mb 589
11412 19 PC studies.pdf admin 16 Feb, 2019 1.76 Mb 1025
7076 PC RCT.pdf admin 15 Sep, 2016 505.08 Kb 1411
5332 Prostate Cancer stage IV.pdf admin 17 Apr, 2015 362.48 Kb 1848
4749 SNP PC.pdf admin 18 Dec, 2014 366.45 Kb 1877
3997 Sun exposure - Grant letter to editor.jpg admin 01 Jun, 2014 187.31 Kb 8888
2915 PC screening.jpg admin 22 Aug, 2013 13.71 Kb 7791
2904 PC incidence2.jpg admin 15 Aug, 2013 52.63 Kb 9117
2903 PC incidence1.jpg admin 15 Aug, 2013 52.58 Kb 8370
2902 Prostate Cancer map.jpg admin 15 Aug, 2013 34.22 Kb 11417