Role of magnesium supplementation in the treatment of depression: A randomized clinical trial.
PLoS One. 2017 Jun 27;12(6):e0180067. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180067. eCollection 2017.
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Tarleton EK1, Littenberg B1,2, MacLean CD1,2, Kennedy AG1,2, Daley C3.
1 Center for Clinical and Translational Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America.
2 Department of Medicine, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America.
3 Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, United States of America.
Current treatment options for depression are limited by efficacy, cost, availability, side effects, and acceptability to patients. Several studies have looked at the association between magnesium and depression, yet its role in symptom management is unclear. The objective of this trial was to test whether supplementation with over-the-counter magnesium chloride improves symptoms of depression. An open-label, blocked, randomized, cross-over trial was carried out in outpatient primary care clinics on 126 adults (mean age 52; 38% male) diagnosed with and currently experiencing mild-to-moderate symptoms with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scores of 5-19. The intervention was 6 weeks of active treatment (248 mg of elemental magnesium per day) compared to 6 weeks of control (no treatment). Assessments of depression symptoms were completed at bi-weekly phone calls. The primary outcome was the net difference in the change in depression symptoms from baseline to the end of each treatment period. Secondary outcomes included changes in anxiety symptoms as well as adherence to the supplement regimen, appearance of adverse effects, and intention to use magnesium supplements in the future. Between June 2015 and May 2016, 112 participants provided analyzable data. Consumption of magnesium chloride for 6 weeks resulted in a clinically significant net improvement in PHQ-9 scores of -6.0 points (CI -7.9, -4.2; P<0.001) and net improvement in Generalized Anxiety Disorders-7 scores of -4.5 points (CI -6.6, -2.4; P<0.001). Average adherence was 83% by pill count. The supplements were well tolerated and 61% of participants reported they would use magnesium in the future. Similar effects were observed regardless of age, gender, baseline severity of depression, baseline magnesium level, or use of antidepressant treatments. Effects were observed within two weeks. Magnesium is effective for mild-to-moderate depression in adults. It works quickly and is well tolerated without the need for close monitoring for toxicity.
PMID: 28654669 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0180067
Effect of magnesium supplementation on depression status in depressed patients with magnesium deficiency: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Nutrition. 2017 Mar;35:56-60. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2016.10.014. Epub 2016 Nov 9.
Rajizadeh A1, Mozaffari-Khosravi H2, Yassini-Ardakani M3, Dehghani A4.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of magnesium supplementation on the depression status of depressed patients suffering from magnesium deficiency.
Sixty depressed people suffering from hypomagnesemia participated in this trial. The individuals were randomly categorized into two groups of 30 members; one receiving two 250-mg tablets of magnesium oxide (MG) daily and the other receiving placebo (PG) for 8 wk. The Beck Depression Inventory-II was conducted and the concentration of serum magnesium was measured.
At the end of intervention, 88.5% of the MG and 48.1% of the PG (P = 0.002) had a normal level of magnesium. The mean changes of serum magnesium were significantly different across the two groups. After the intervention, the mean Beck score significantly declined. However, in the MG, this reduction was more significant than in the PG (P = 0.02), so that the mean changes in this group experienced 15.65 ± 8.9 reduction, but in the PG, it declined by 10.40 ± 7.9.
Daily consumption of 500 mg magnesium oxide tablets for ≥8 wk by depressed patients suffering from magnesium deficiency leads to improvements in depression status and magnesium levels. Therefore, assessment of the magnesium serum and resolving this deficiency positively influence the treatment of depressed patients.
PMID: 28241991 DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2016.10.014
- Only 7% of the possible people actually participated in the trial
Exclusions included: Already taking Magnesium and having health problem
“Effects were observed within two weeks.”
Most statistically significant change was the reduction in headaches
- Migraine and Vitamin D
- Migraine headaches reduced with 50,000 IU vitamin D weekly – RCT July 2015
- Overview Magnesium and vitamin D
Items in Both categories Depression and Magnesium are listed here:
- Depression treated by Omega-3, Magnesium, Zinc, proboitics, etc - Sept 2017
- Magnesium Puts Psychiatric Drugs to Shame for Depression – March 2019
- Dr. Coimbra discusses Vitamin D, Magnesium, Folic Acid, B12, Autism, Depression, etc – Sept 2018
- Depression greatly reduced by taking 250 mg of Magnesium Chloride daily for 6 weeks– RCT June 2017
- MAGNESIUM IN MAN - IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH AND DISEASE – review 2015
- Depression is associated with low Magnesium – meta-analysis April 2015
- Depression is sometimes associated with low Magnesium – review 2013
- Magnesium reduces depression etc. – Aug 2013
- Depression, vitamin D, Magnesium: no agreement Jan 2012
Items in Both the categories Headache and Magnesium
- Migraine headaches cut in half by 4,000 IU of vitamin D – RCT Sept 2018
- Acute Migraine 35 times more likely if low Magnesium levels – May 2016
- Migraine headaches quickly reduced with Magnesium – Meta-analysis Jan 2016
- Cluster headaches substantially reduced by 10,000 IU of Vitamin D in 80 percent of people
- Migraines may be due to lack of lack of Magnesium in half of sufferers – May 2012
- Headache with vitamin D may mean you need Magnesium
Items in Both categories Depression and Omega-3 are listed here:
- Omega-3 helps treat Major Depression – International Consensus Sept 2019
- Mental disorders fought by Omega-3 etc. - meta-meta-analysis Oct 2019
- Omega-3 reduces Depression. Anxiety, Stress, PTSD, etc. – Aug 2018
- Depression treated by Omega-3 (again) – meta-analysis Aug 2019
- Depression after childbirth 5 X less likely if good Omega-3 index – April 2019
- Occupational burnout reduced after 8 weeks of Omega-3 – RCT July 2019
- Anxiety severity reduced if more than 2 grams of Omega-3 – meta-analysis Sept 2018
- Psychotic disorders not treated by Omega-3 when patents take anti-depressants and get therapy – June 2018
- Happy Nurses Project gave Omega-3 for 3 months – reduced depression, insomnia, anxiety, etc for a year – RCT July 2018
- Depression – is it reduced by Vitamin D and or Omega-3 – RCT 2019
- Benefits of Omega-3 beyond heart health - LEF Feb 2018
- Omega-3 improves gut bacteria, reduces inflammation and depression – Dec 2017
- Unipolar depression treated by Omega-3, Zinc, and probably Vitamin D – meta-analysis Oct 2017
- Omega-3 reduces many psychiatric disorders – 2 reviews 2016
- Omega-3 does not consistently treat depression if use small amounts for short time period – review Oct 2016
- How Omega-3 Fights Depression – LEF July 2016
- Depression due to inflammation reduced by Omega-3 (children and pregnant) – Nov 2015
- Depression treated somewhat by Omega-3 (St. John's Wort better) – RAND org reviews 2015
- Depression substantially decreased with Omega-3 – Sept 2015
- Omega-3 for just 3 months greatly reduced psychosis for 80 months – RCT Aug 2015
- Omega-3 prevents PTSD and some mood disorders - Aug 2015
- Omega-3, Vitamin D, and other nutrients decrease mental health problems – March 2015