Table of contents
- Muscle in VitaminDWiki
- Muscles and Seniors in VitaminDWiki
- Overview Sports and vitamin D
- The Roles of Vitamin D in Skeletal Muscle Feb 2013
- 48,000 IU monthly for a year did not help elderly muscles- June 2019
- Vitamin D supplementation increases strength of lower muscles – Meta-analysis April 2019
- Mechanisms of vitamin D action in skeletal muscle – June 2019
- Vitamin D and muscle – April 2019
- Skeletal muscles helped by vitamin D – Review Feb 2014
- Vitamin D supplementation improves muscle strength in healthy adults – meta-analysis of 6 RCT Aug 2014
- Muscle improved by increasing vitamin D if previously less than 24 ng – June 2013
- Athletes need at least 40 ng of vitamin D – literature review Oct 2012
- More muscle torque associated with higher vitamin D – Jan 2017
- All items in the Sports and D category
- Vitamin D supplementation help muscles of seniors who are vitamin D deficient – meta-analysis July 2014
- Dietary Protein, Muscle and Physical Function in the Very Old – July 2018
- Low Vitamin D breaks down muscle by interferring with protein - Editorial Nov 2013
- Seniors gained 0.3 kg of muscle in 6 weeks with 800 IU and Leucine protein – Aug 2017
- Sarcopenia (muscle loss) and Vitamin D
- MRI of elderly skeletal muscle lacking vitamin D – April 2014
- Overview Fractures and Falls and Vitamin D - poor muscles ==> fall more frequently
Exercise helps build muscles
- Exercise plus vitamin D increases elderly muscles (Nordic walking in this case) – RCT Sept 2018
- Muscle strength of Judo athletes increased 13 percent following single dose of 150,000 IU vitamin D – RCT Nov 2015
- Hypothesis: Sarcopenia needs Protein, Leucine, Omega-3, Vitamin D, and exercise – Aug 2018
- Muscle loss (sarcopenia) may be both prevented and treated by Omega-3 – Feb 2019
Overview Sports and vitamin D has the following summary
Athletes are helped by vitamin D by:
- Faster reaction time
- Far fewer colds/flus during the winter
- Less sore/tired after a workout
- Fewer micro-cracks and broken bones
- Bones which do break heal much more quickly
- Increased VO2 and exercise endurance Feb 2011
- Indoor athletes especially need vitamin D
- Professional indoor athletes are starting to supplement with vitamin D or use vitamin D beds
- Olympic athletes have used UV/vitamin D since the 1930's
- The biggest gain from the use of vitamin D is by those who exercise less than 2 hours per day.
- Reduced muscle fatigue with 10,000 IU vitamin D daily
- Muscle strength improved when vitamin D added: 3 Meta-analysis
- Reduced Concussions
See also: Sports and Vitamin D category
The Roles of Vitamin D in Skeletal Muscle: Form, Function, and Metabolism
Endocrine Reviews February 1, 2013 vol. 34 no. 1 33-83
Christian M. Girgis, Roderick J. Clifton-Bligh, Mark W. Hamrick, Michael F. Holick and Jenny E. Gunton
Garvan Institute of Medical Research (C.M.G., J.E.G.) and St. Vincent's Clinical School (J.E.G.), University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2010, Australia; Faculty of Medicine (C.M.G., R.J.C.-B., J.E.G.), University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2052, Australia; The Kolling Institute of Medical Research (R.J.C.-B.) and Royal North Shore Hospital (R.J.C.-B.), Sydney, New South Wales 2065, Australia; Georgia Health Sciences University (M.W.H.), Augusta, Georgia 30912; Boston University Medical Center (M.F.H.), Boston, Massachusetts 02118; and Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes (J.E.G.), Westmead Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales 2145, Australia
Address requests for reprints to: Dr. Christian M. Girgis or Associate Professor Jenny E. Gunton, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia. E-mail: c.girgis at garvan.org.au or j.gunton at garvan.org.au.
Beyond its established role in bone and mineral homeostasis, there is emerging evidence that vitamin D exerts a range of effects in skeletal muscle. Reports of profound muscle weakness and changes in the muscle morphology of adults with vitamin D deficiency have long been described. These reports have been supplemented by numerous trials assessing the impact of vitamin D on muscle strength and mass and falls in predominantly elderly and deficient populations. At a basic level, animal models have confirmed that vitamin D deficiency and congenital aberrations in the vitamin D endocrine system may result in muscle weakness. To explain these effects, some molecular mechanisms by which vitamin D impacts on muscle cell differentiation, intracellular calcium handling, and genomic activity have been elucidated. There are also suggestions that vitamin D alters muscle metabolism, specifically its sensitivity to insulin, which is a pertinent feature in the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. We will review the range of human clinical, animal, and cell studies that address the impact of vitamin D in skeletal muscle, and discuss the controversial issues. This is a vibrant field of research and one that continues to extend the frontiers of knowledge of vitamin D's broad functional repertoire.
A. The vitamin D pathway
B. Skeletal muscle physiology
C. Calcium and muscle contraction
D. Calcium and exercise-related glucose uptake
E. Calcium and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake
A. VDR in muscle
B. Calcium homeostasis
C. Phosphate homeostasis
D. Proliferation and differentiation
E. Muscle contractile proteins
F. Phospholipid composition
G. Bone-muscle cross talk and vitamin D
H. Cell models and molecular pathways for insulin signaling and diabetes
A.1 VDRKO mice
B. Other animal models
C. Animal studies on insulin sensitivity and diabetes
D. Summary: vitamin D and muscle function in animal studies
A. FokI polymorphisms
B. BsmI polymorphisms
C. VDR polymorphisms and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes
B. Myalgia and vitamin D deficiency
D. Drug-related myopathy and vitamin D
E. Falls and vitamin D
F. Muscle strength and physical performance
G. Muscle morphology and electromyography (EMG)
H. Insulin sensitivity and glucose handling VII. Conclusions
- Vitamin D exerts rapid and genomic effects in primary muscle cells and cell lines.
These effects relate to intracellular calcium handling,differentiation and contractile protein composition.
- In vivo, it is not clear whether VDR is expressed in adult skeletal muscle.
- Whole-body VDRKO mice and vitamin D-deficient animals display significant defects in muscle function and development.
- In humans, single nucleotide polymorphisms in the gene encoding VDR have been associated with differences in muscle strength.
- Changes in muscle morphology in humans with severe vitamin D deficiency have been reported since the 1970's.
- Proximal myopathy and muscle pain in subjects with severe vitamin D deficiency resolve following vitamin D supplementation.
- Associations between vitamin D deficiency, muscle weakness and falls are confounded by factors including frailty and lower exposure to sunlight.
Clinical parameters of muscle function are not standardized making data aggregation difficult.
- Randomized data suggest that vitamin D supplementation may reduce falls in older individuals but not all studies support this conclusion.
- The recommended dose of vitamin D supplementation and vitamin D targets remain hotly contested issues.
- Does the VDR exist in fully differentiated adult muscle and does it have physiological relevance at this site?
Or rather, as suggested by in vitro studies, is its role predominantly related to the function of immature muscle cells such as in myogenesis?
- Are changes in muscle function and morphology directly related to vitamin D or indirectly to its effects in calcium and mineral homeostasis?
- Does skeletal muscle possess the ability to 1-a-hydroxylate 25D at any stage in its development?
- As suggested by studies on phosphate handling in myocytes, does 25D itself exert direct effects on muscle?
- Is vitamin D deficiency or its reversal an important consideration among those with other muscle disorders such as congenital dystrophies and acquired immune-related myositis?
56 page PDF is attached at the bottom of this page
No effect of monthly supplementation with 12000 IU, 24000 IU or 48000 IU vitamin D3 for one year on muscle function: The vitamin D in older people study.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Jun;190:256-262. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2018.12.008. Epub 2018 Dec 21.Ranathunga RMTK1, Hill TR2, Mathers JC2, Francis RM3, Prentice A4, Schoenmakers I5, Aspray TJ6; Vitamin D in Older People Study group.
Vitamin D plays a role in muscle function through genomic and non-genomic processes. The objective of this RCT was to determine the effect of monthly supplemental vitamin D3 onmuscle function in 70+ years old adults. Participants (n = 379) were randomized to receive, 12,000 IU, 24,000 IU or 48,000 IU of vitamin D3 monthly for 12 months. Standardized Hand Grip Strength (GS) and Timed-Up and Go (TUG) were measured before and after vitamin D3 supplementation. Fasting total plasma 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) concentrations were measured by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MSMS) and immunoassay, respectively. Baseline plasma 25OHD concentrations were 41.3 (SD 19.9), 39.5 (SD 20.6), 38.9 (SD 19.7) nmol/L; GS values were 28.5 (SD 13.4), 28.8 (SD 13.0) and 28.1 (SD 12.1) kg and TUG test values were 10.8 (SD 2.5), 11.6 (SD 2.9) and 11.9 (SD 3.6) s for the 12,000 IU, 24,000 IU and 48,000 IU dose groups, respectively. Baseline plasma 25OHD concentration < 25 nmol/L was associated with lower GS (P = 0.003). Post-interventional plasma 25OHD concentrations increased to 55.9 (SD 15.6), 64.6 (SD15.3) and 79.0 (SD 15.1) nmol/L in the 12,000 IU, 24,000 IU and 48,000 IU dose groups, respectively and there was a significant dose-related response in post-interventional plasma 25OHD concentration (p<0.0001). Post-interventional GS values were 24.1 (SD 10.1), 26.2 (SD10.6) and 25.7 (SD 9.4) kg and TUG test values were 11.5 (SD 2.6), 12.0 (SD 3.7) and 11.9 (SD 3.2) s for 12,000 IU, 24,000 IU and 48,000 IU dose groups, respectively. The change (Δ) in GS and TUG from pre to post-intervention was not different between treatment groups before and after the adjustment for confounders, suggesting no effect of the intervention. Plasma 25OHD concentration was not associated with GS and TUG test after supplementation. In conclusion, plasma 25OHD concentration < 25 nmol/L was associated with lower GS at baseline. However, monthly vitamin D3 supplementation with 12,000 IU, 24,000 IU and 48,000 IU, for 12 months had no effect on muscle function in older adults aged 70+ years. Trial Registration : EudraCT 2011-004890-10 and ISRCTN35648481.Title was revised Nov 2019 which caused the visitor count to reset.
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- Vitamin D exerts rapid and genomic effects in primary muscle cells and cell lines.