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Magnesium Depletion Score predicts increased risk of various health problems

MDS (4 variables) appears to be a much better estimator of Magnesium deficiency
   than the measurement of blood Mg (which is only 1% of Mg in the body)

Note: Low Mg is also due to poor gut, low stomach acid, bottled water, non-organic food, low Potassium, high Vitamin D, etc

Magnesium Deficiency: The Silent Killer Linked to a 4x Higher Death Rate - June 2024

Green Med Info

  • "The MDS: Your Magnesium Status Decoder"
    • "This is where the Magnesium Depletion Score (MDS) comes in. Developed by a team of researchers, the MDS takes into account four key factors that can hamper magnesium reabsorption:
      • alcohol consumption,
      • diuretic use,
      • proton pump inhibitor use, and
      • kidney function
    • By assigning points based on the presence and severity of these factors, the MDS provides a more comprehensive picture of your magnesium status."
  • "In a nationally representative sample of over 11,000 US adults, higher MDS scores were associated with increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation in the body"

VitaminDWiki - 9 studies in both categories Magnesium and Mortality

This list is automatically updated

MDS, inflammation and Cardio Mortality - Aug 2021

Magnesium Depletion Score (MDS) Predicts Risk of Systemic Inflammation and Cardiovascular Mortality among US Adults
J Nutr. 2021 Aug 7;151(8):2226-2235. doi: 10.1093/jn/nxab138.
Lei Fan 1, Xiangzhu Zhu 1, Andrea Rosanoff 2, Rebecca B Costello 2, Chang Yu 3, Reid Ness 4, Douglas L Seidner 5, Harvey J Murff 6, Christianne L Roumie 6, Martha J Shrubsole 1, Qi Dai 1

Background: Kidney reabsorption of magnesium (Mg) is essential for homeostasis.

Objectives: We developed and validated models with the kidney reabsorption-related magnesium depletion score (MDS) to predict states of magnesium deficiency and disease outcomes.

Methods: MDS was validated in predicting body magnesium status among 77 adults (aged 62 ± 8 y, 51% men) at high risk of magnesium deficiency in the Personalized Prevention of Colorectal Cancer Trial (PPCCT) (registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01105169) using the magnesium tolerance test (MTT). We then validated MDS for risk stratification and for associations with inflammation and mortality among >10,000 US adults (weighted: aged 48 ± 0.3 y, 47% men) in the NHANES, a nationally representative study. A proportional hazards regression model was used for associations between magnesium intake and the MDS with risks of total and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality.

Results: In the PPCCT, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for magnesium deficiency was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.50, 0.76) for the model incorporating the MDS with sex and age compared with 0.53 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.67) for the model with serum magnesium alone. In the NHANES, mean serum C-reactive protein significantly increased with increasing MDS (P-trend < 0.01) after adjusting for age and sex and other covariates, primarily among individuals with magnesium intake less than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR; P-trend < 0.05). Further, we found that low magnesium intake was longitudinally associated with increased risks of total and CVD mortality only among those with magnesium deficiency predicted by MDS. MDS was associated with increased risks of total and CVD mortality in a dose-response manner only among those with magnesium intake less than the EAR.

Conclusions: The MDS serves as a promising measure in identifying individuals with magnesium deficiency who may benefit from increased intake of magnesium to reduce risks of systemic inflammation and CVD mortality. This lays a foundation for precision-based nutritional interventions.
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

MDS and Osteoporosis - May 2022

Associations of the Dietary Magnesium Intake and Magnesium Depletion Score With Osteoporosis Among American Adults: Data From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Front. Nutr., 31 May 2022 Volume 9 - 2022 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.883264
Jie Wang† Fei Xing† Ning Sheng Zhou Xiang*
Department of Orthopaedics, Orthopaedic Research Institute, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

Objectives: The study aimed to explore the associations between dietary magnesium (Mg) intake and magnesium depletion score (MDS) among American adults with osteoporosis.

Methods: The continuous data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2006, 2007–2008, 2009–2010, 2013–2014, and 2017–2018 were merged to ensure a large and representative sample and a total of 14,566 participants were enrolled for the analysis. The weighted multivariate linear regression model was performed to assess the linear relationship between dietary Mg intake and osteoporosis. Further, the non-linear relationship was also characterized by smooth curve fitting (SCF) and weighted generalized additive model (GAM). In addition, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for associations between the MDS and osteoporosis were assessed by weighted logistic regression models.

Results: After adjusting all covariates, the weighted multivariable linear regression models demonstrated that the dietary Mg intake negatively correlated with osteoporosis, especially in participants aged 55 years or older. In addition, the non-linear relationship characterized by SCF and weighted GAM showed that the dietary Mg intake presented an L-shaped association with osteoporosis among females aged 55 years or older. Moreover, the weighted logistic regression model demonstrated that compared with MDS 0, the OR between MDS ≥3 and osteoporosis was 2.987 (95% CI 1.904, 4.686) in the male-middle intake group. Moreover, compared with MDS 0, the ORs between MDS ≥3 and osteoporosis was 5.666 (95% CI 3.188, 10.069) in the female-low intake group and 1.691 (95% CI 1.394, 2.051) in the female-middle intake group.

Conclusion: The present study indicated that in people with a daily intake of Mg level below the recommended daily intake (RDI), the dietary Mg intake and Mg bioavailability represented by MDS have a negative correlation with osteoporosis. According to the results, the combination of MDS and dietary Mg intake may be more comprehensive and rigorous in screening the population with osteoporosis. Therefore, early monitoring and interventions for osteoporosis may be necessary for those with insufficient dietary Mg intake or high MDS scores.
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MDS and Chronic Kidney Disease - 2023

Magnesium Depletion Score is Associated with Long-Term Mortality in Chronic Kidney Diseases: A Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study
Journal of Nephrology, Volume 36, pages 755–765, (2023) PDF behind paywall and in DeepDyve
Saifu Yin, Zhaoxia Zhou, Tao Lin & Xianding Wang

Magnesium deficiency is common in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD) due to restricted magnesium intake and impaired magnesium reabsorption. Based on pathophysiological risk factors influencing kidney magnesium reabsorption, a magnesium depletion score (MDS) was developed. Using MDS as a novel indicator for assessing body magnesium status, we hypothesized that it was associated with clinical prognosis.

We conducted a prospective population-based cohort study using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2014 to explore the impact of MDS on the clinical outcomes of CKD patients. Propensity score-matched analyses were conducted to increase comparability. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, and the secondary outcomes were cardiovascular-cause and cancer-cause mortality.

After propensity score matching, 3294 CKD patients were divided into 2 groups: MDS ≤ 2 (N = 1647), and MDS > 2 (N = 1647). During a median follow-up of 75 months, Kaplan–Meier analyses showed that MDS > 2 was associated with worse 5- and 10-year overall survival (78.5% vs 73.4%; 53.1% vs 43.1%, P < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables, MDS was found to be an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality (HR:1.34, 95% CI 1.20–1.50, P < 0.001). MDS > 2 was also associated with higher cardiovascular-cause mortality (16.2% VS 11.6%, P = 0.005). Multivariate competing risk analysis revealed that MDS > 2 was an independent risk factor (HR: 1.33, 95% CI 1.06–1.66, P = 0.012). Subgroup analyses reported that MDS > 2 increased all-cause mortality and cardiovascular-cause mortality only in patients with inadequate magnesium intake (P < 0.001, P < 0.001) but not in those with adequate intake (P = 0.068, P = 0.920).

A magnesium depletion score > 2 was independently associated with higher long-term cardiovascular-cause and all-cause mortality in CKD patients.

Each MDS unit increases the risk of Metabolic Syndrome by 30% - Feb 2024

Magnesium Depletion Score and Metabolic Syndrome in US Adults: Analysis of NHANES 2003 to 2018
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, dgae075, https://doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgae075
Xiaohao Wang, Zhaohao Zeng, Xinyu Wang, Pengfei Zhao, Lijiao Xiong, Tingfeng Liao, Runzhu Yuan, Shu Yang, Lin Kang, Zhen

The association between magnesium status and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains unclear.

This study aimed to examine the relationship between kidney reabsorption-related magnesium depletion score (MDS) and MetS among US adults.

We analyzed data from 15 565 adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003 to 2018. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III report. The MDS is a scoring system developed to predict the status of magnesium deficiency that fully considers the pathophysiological factors influencing the kidneys' reabsorption capability. Weighted univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess the association between MDS and MetS. Restricted cubic spline (RCS) analysis was conducted to characterize dose-response relationships. Stratified analyses by sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were also performed.

In both univariate and multivariable analyses, higher MDS was significantly associated with increased odds of MetS.
Each unit increase in MDS was associated with approximately a 30% higher risk for MetS, even after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio 1.31; 95% CI, 1.17-1.45). RCS graphs depicted a linear dose-response relationship across the MDS range. This positive correlation remained consistent across various population subgroups and exhibited no significant interaction by age, sex, race, adiposity, smoking status, or alcohol consumption.

Higher urinary magnesium loss as quantified by MDS may be an independent linear risk factor for MetS in US adults, irrespective of sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Optimizing magnesium nutritional status could potentially confer benefits to patients with MetS.
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MDS increases risk of Sleep Apnea by 3X - Aug 2024

Association between magnesium deficiency score and sleep quality in adults: A population-based cross-sectional study
Journal of Affective Disorders Volume 358, 1 August 2024, Pages 105-112 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2024.05.002
Xiaomin Luo, Min Tang, Xiaohui Wei, Yongde Peng


  • A graded dose-response relationship was found between MDS and sleep trouble/sleep disorder.
  • A significant positive association was found between MDS and sleep apnea.
  • No association was found between MDS and restless legs, insomnia or insufficient sleep.
  • MDS was positively associated with excessive sleep in subjects ≥60 years.
  • Adequate magnesium intake may be beneficial in ameliorating this association.

The association between magnesium status and sleep quality is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between renal reabsorption-related magnesium depletion score (MDS) and sleep quality.

This study was conducted through a cross-sectional survey of adults aged ≥20 years who participated in NHANES 2005–2014. We used weighted logistic regression to examine the association between MDS and sleep quality and performed trend tests to analyze for the presence of a dose-response relationship. Subgroup analyses were performed based on various sleep outcomes and covariates.

A total of 20,585 participants were included in the study, with a mean age of 48.8 years and 50.7 % female. After adjusting for all covariates, we found a graded dose-response relationship between MDS and sleep trouble as well as sleep disorder. Further analyses revealed a significant positive association between MDS and sleep apnea (OR = 3.01; 95 % CI 1.37–6.62), but no association with restless legs, insomnia or insufficient sleep. In addition, subgroup analyses revealed that middle-aged, male, obese, low magnesium intake, and depressed patients were more prone to sleep trouble and sleep disorder; interestingly, MDS was positively associated with excessive sleep in subjects ≥60 years and without depression.

Our study found a significant association between MDS and sleep quality, particularly sleep apnea, but adequate magnesium intake may be beneficial in mitigating this association. MDS may be associated with excessive sleep in older adults, but not with insufficient sleep or insomnia.

MDS increases risk of Kidney Stones in women by 1.7X - July 2024

The magnesium depletion score is associated with increased likelihood of kidney stone disease among female adults
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology Volume 84, July 2024 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2024.127432
Ying Xu a 1, Yingyi Qin b 1, Hongtao Lu c 1, Lulu Liu a, Weiyan Huang a, Anwen Huang a, Yufei Ye a, Hui Shen c, Zhiyong Guo a, Wei Chen a 2

The association between magnesium depletion score (MDS) and kidney stone disease (KSD) remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate the association of MDS with KSD in adults.

A total of 19,654 participants were enrolled from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The MDS was calculated by assessing four aspects, including alcohol assumption, renal function, and use of diuretics and proton pump inhibitor. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to explore the associations between MDS and the prevalence of KSD. Linear correlations were conducted explore the relationship of testosterone with MDS.

In the multivariable logistic regressions with full adjustment for confounding variables, the odds ratio of MDS associating with KSD was 1.28 (95% CI: 1.04–1.58, P = 0.022) in total population, and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.16–2.50, P=0.007) in female participants. Besides, compared to the lowest MDS, the highest MDS was associated with a lower testosterone (β = −16.39, P=0.009) after full adjustment in non-menopause women.

This study highlighted a positive correlation of high MDS with KSD in female population, which may be associated low level of serum testosterone.
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High MDS unit increases risk of Hypertension by 8.3 X - Dec 2023

The Association between Magnesium Depletion Score and Hypertension in US Adults: Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2018)
Biological Trace Element Research: 26 December 2023 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-023-04034-y
PDF behind paywall, can be viewed in DeepDyve
Mo-Yao Tan, Chao-Yue Mo & Qian Zhao

The magnesium depletion score (MDS) emerges as a new valuable predictor of the body’s magnesium status index. This study aims to explore the link between MDS and hypertension (HTN) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. A total of 9708 participants from NHANES (2007–2018) were enrolled to investigate MDS’s connection with HTN. HTN was defined based on clinical guidelines.
MDS classification (low, 0–1; middle, 2; high, 3–5) relied on alcohol consumption, diuretic use, proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) usage, and kidney disease. Multivariable logistic regression assessed MDS-HTN association. Subsequent analyses included interaction tests, subgroups, and sensitivity analysis. Each unit increase in MDS correlated with an 87% higher HTN risk (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.64–2.13) after adjusting for confounders.
High MDS participants exhibited significantly elevated HTN risk compared to low MDS counterparts (OR, 8.31; 95% CI, 4.81–14.36), with a significant trend across MDS groups (p < 0.001). Subgroup analyses supported a consistent positive correlation. Sensitivity analysis confirmed a robust association. The results indicated a positive correlation between MDS and the risk of developing HTN in US adults.

MDS and Mortality for those with Hypertension - June 2024

Higher Magnesium Depletion Score Increases the Risk of All-cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Hypertension Participants
Biological Trace Element Research https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-024-04254-w   PDF can be read at DeepDyve
Jingjing Song, Yujun Zhang, ZhiGen Lin, Jiazhen Tang, Xiaorong Yang & Fang Liu


Note: Beware "average age" Those with high MDS were 16 years older, so were more likely to die anyway
The magnesium depletion score (MDS) is a novel index utilized for evaluating body magnesium status. The present study intended to explore the association of MDS with mortality among hypertension (HTN) participants. In this cohort study, we utilized data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) covering the years 2003 to 2018. MDS levels were categorized into three groups (lower: MDS = 0–1; middle: MDS = 2; higher: MDS = 3–5). Kaplan-Meier curves were employed to illustrate survival differences between groups with varying MDS levels. The relationship between MDS and mortality was assessed through weighted multivariate Cox regression models. Subgroup analyses, along with sensitivity analyses, were also conducted to further explore and validate the findings. This study encompassed 12,485 participants, recording 2537 all-cause deaths and 707 cardiovascular deaths. The Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that the higher MDS group had the highest rates of all-cause and cardiovascular death. (P < 0.001). Controlling for all confounding variables, participants belonging to the higher MDS group demonstrated a substantially elevated risk of mortality in comparison to the lower MDS group (all-cause mortality: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10–1.54; cardiovascular mortality: HR = 1.63, 95% CI 1.19–2.22). There were no interaction factors found in subgroup analyses that affected the relationship between MDS and mortality, except for cardiovascular disease. The findings were confirmed to be robust through further sensitivity analyses. Higher MDS levels independently predict an elevated risk of mortality among US adults with HTN. Therefore, MDS may serve as a cost-effective and widely available prognostic marker for HTN.

VitaminDWiki - 12 studies in both categories Magnesium and Hypertension

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MDS and Diabetes - Jan 2024

Associations of the magnesium depletion score and magnesium intake with diabetes among US adults: an analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2018
Epidemiol Health. 2024; 46: e2024020 online 2024 Jan 10. doi: 10.4178/epih.e2024020
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High MDS increases risk of Congestive Heart Failure by 3.2 X - May 2023

Association of Magnesium Depletion Score with Congestive Heart Failure: Results from the NHANES 2007–2016
Biological Trace Element Research Volume 202, pages 454–465, (2024) DeepDyve
Diming Zhao, Pengfei Chen, Mingjian Chen, Liang Chen & Liqing Wang

The magnesium depletion score (MDS) is considered a new valuable and reliable predictor of body magnesium status. This study aimed to explore the association between MDS and congestive heart failure (CHF) among US adults. A total of 19,227 eligible participants from the 2007–2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were enrolled in this study and then divided into three groups according to the level of MDS (none to low: MDS=0–1, middle: MDS=2, high: MDS=3–5). Sample-weighted logistic regression models were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) exploring the independent relationship between MDS and CHF. The estimated prevalence of CHF increased with the increasing level of MDS (none to low: 0.86%, middle: 4.06%, high: 13.52%; P < 0.001).
Compared to those in the none-to-low group, participants in the middle and high groups were at significantly higher risk of CHF after adjusting for various covariates (model 3: OR=1.55, 95%CI: 1.05–2.30, P < 0.001; OR=3.20, 95%CI: 2.07–4.96, P < 0.001; respectively). Subgroup analyses indicated that adequate dietary magnesium intake could reduce the risk of CHF in participants who did not meet the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for magnesium. Besides, there was an interaction between coronary artery disease and MDS on CHF (P for interaction < 0.001). These findings indicated that MDS, a novel indicator estimating magnesium deficiency, is associated with the risk of CHF in non-institutionalized US civilians. Participants whose dietary magnesium intake reaches the RDA might be at lower risk.

VitaminDWiki – Magnesium and Vitamin D contains:

354 items in category, see also

Mg and Vitamin D

Dr. Dean

Number of studies in both of the categories of Magnesium and:

Bone 16,  Cardiovascular 17,   Diabetes 28. Depression 14,  Obesity 11,   Omega-3 36,  Zinc 24,  Pregnancy 11,  Headache 11,   Virus 26,   Calcium 27   Virus 26   Mortality 9   Hypertension 12   Inflammation 3   Pain 7 etc.

Magnesium is associated with categories: Omega-3 33, Diabetes 27, Vitamin K 27, Calcium 26, Virus 25, Zinc 24, Cardiovascular 17, etc.

Bone - Health 15,  Vitamin B12 15,  Iron 14,  Depression 14,  Supplement 12,  Vitamin C 11,  Obesity 11,  Hypertension 11,  Headache 10,  Boron 10,  Pregnancy 10,  Metabolic Syndrome 9,  Intervention 9,  Mortality and D 8,  Iodine 8,  Seniors 8,  Deficiency of Vitamin D 8,  Books,   videos on Vitamin D 7,  Pain - chronic 7,  Resveratrol 7,  Interactions with Vitamin D 6,  Vitamin A 6,  Cognitive 6,  Falls and Fractures 5,  Trauma and surgery 5,  Kidney 5,  Women 5,  Osteoporosis 4,  Breathing 4,  Infant-Child 4,  ADHD 4,  Cancer - Breast 4,  Cancer - Colon 4,  Predict Vitamin D 4,  Associations 4,  Off Topic 4,  Curcumin 4 (Nov 2023)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
21278 HT age.webp admin 06 Jun, 2024 6.96 Kb 30
21277 MDS Mortality.webp admin 06 Jun, 2024 14.12 Kb 33
21276 MDS CHF.webp admin 05 Jun, 2024 5.93 Kb 44
21275 MDS Diabetes_CompressPdf.pdf admin 05 Jun, 2024 329.33 Kb 10
21274 MDS Kidney Stone.webp admin 05 Jun, 2024 9.42 Kb 44
21273 MDS Kidney Stone.pdf admin 05 Jun, 2024 670.42 Kb 9
21272 MDS MetS.webp admin 05 Jun, 2024 6.50 Kb 45
21271 MDS MetS.pdf admin 05 Jun, 2024 422.48 Kb 5
21270 MDS CKD.webp admin 05 Jun, 2024 35.88 Kb 51
21269 MDS Osteo_CompressPdf.pdf admin 05 Jun, 2024 252.94 Kb 8
21268 MDS 2021 cardio.pdf admin 05 Jun, 2024 160.21 Kb 9