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Fortification with Vitamin D

104 items in Fortification category

Fortification works, even if food is cooked, but govts rarely fortifiy with enough
Govts, food producers, and families can fortify:
   milk,   yogurt,   beer,   bread,  cerals,  cooking oil,  soups,  jams,   jellys,   snack bars, etc.
Some interesting fortification articles


J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Oct 2:105489. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2019.105489.
Maurya VK1, Bashir K2, Aggarwal M3.

Today, as per the latest medical reports available, majority of the population throughout globe is facing vitamin D (Vit D) deficiency. Even in sub-tropical countries like India and many others Vit D deficiency is highly prevalent despite the exuberant available sunshine (a major source of Vit D) throughtout the year. The reason could be attributed to an array of factors including socioeconomic, cultural and religious Further, other than the sunlight, there are very limited sources of Vit D to fulfil the recommended dietary allowance of Vit D (RDA: 400-800 IU per day). A large proportion of Vit D is lost during food processing and storage due to environmental stress conditions such as temperature, pH, salt, oxygen and light. Vita D, an important micronutrient, is essentially required for the prevention of disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer etc. in addition to its traditional role in bone metabolism. Therefore, in order to meet the daily requirements of Vit D for human body, WHO has recognized fortification as the most efficient and safest method to address malnutrition. But there are innumerable chellenges involved during food fortification using Vit D as fortificants such as

  • homogeneity into the food matrix,
  • physico-chemical/photochemical degradation,
  • loss during processing and storage,
  • interactions with other components of food matrix
    • resulting into change in taste, texture and appearance
    • thus affecting acceptability, palatability and marketability.

Fortification of Vit D into food products especially the ones which have an aqueous portion, is not simple for food technologist.
Recent advances in nanotechnology offer various microencapsulation techniques such as

  • liposome,
  • solid-lipid particles,
  • nanostructured lipid carriers,
  • emulsion,
  • spray drying etc.

which have been used to design efficient nanomaterials with desired functionality and have great potential for fortification of fortificants like Vit D. The present review is an undate on Vit D, in light of its fortification level, RDA, factors affecting its bioavailability and various microencapsulation techniques adopted to develop Vit D-nanomaterials and their fate in food fortification.
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 Download the PDF from Sci-Hub via VitaminDWiki
Has details on which foods (mainly dairy) are fortified with Vitamin: US, Canada, Brazil, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Argentina, Panama, Ecuador, Peru. Venezuela, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador; Australia and New Zealand, UK, Germany, Sweden, Norway, The Netherlands, Finland, Turkey, Philippines, SaudiArabia, Bahrain, Morocco, Sri Lanka, India
Does not distinguish Vitamin D3 instead of D2
Does not distinguish between high fat and low fat dairy
Has details on foritification types


All pages in Fortification category


Determination of vitamin D in foods - New Zealand 2014

Includes technical concerns such as light and heat stability
Found that Liposomal-form was better than water- soluable form for Cheese fortification
Only permit 100 IU of vitamin D per 10 grams of edible oil
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki


A Review of Vitamin D Fortification: Implications for Nutrition Programming in Southeast Asia - 2013

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
TABLE 3. Summary of findings of different surveys (including all category groups)

Places where the
studies were implemented
All of these studies except one in Romania and another in Mongolia were conducted in developed countries. Most of these countries were located in high latitude regions (30°N or higher). Seasonal variation was obvious for vitamin D deficiency, and most studies were conducted during winter.
Food vehicles used The common food carriers for vitamin D fortification included milk, cheese, and other dairy products (both regular-fat and low-fat); margarine; oil spread; orange juice; and bread.
Fortification levels The fortification level of these studies varied from 2.5 to 125 µg /day; the most common doses were between 5 and 25 µg/day (1 to 5 times AI). The fortification level for each food depended on the intake and characteristics of that food (e.g., 0.5 µg/100 mL for milk and 10 µg/100 g for margarine in Finland).
Impacts of the studies
on 25OHD concentration
20 studies showed beneficial effects of vitamin D fortification on 25OHD concentration or vitamin D deficiency. The magnitude of mean 25OHD concentration improvement varied from 2 to 97.1 nmol/L; the most common improvements were between 9.9 and 34.5 nmol/L. The magnitude was significantly related to the fortification level used (n = 8, r = 0.98, p < .01), which is also supported by the meta-analysis of Black et al. [19]. For example, fortification with the lowest (2.5 µg/day) and the highest (125 µg/day) amounts of vitamin D resulted in the smallest (2 nmol/L) and the largest (97.1 nmol/L) improvements in 25OHD, respectively.
Impact of the studies
on other markers
Vitamin D fortification suppressed PTH in 8 of 14 studies. When products fortified with both vitamin D and calcium were consumed, BMD increased in various locations, including hip, femoral neck, ultradistal radius, spine, and pelvis. However, it is difficult to attribute the benefits to vitamin D or calcium alone, due to the design of these studies.
Toxicity No adverse effects were reported when food fortified with 100 µg/day vitamin D was consumed for 2 months. Serum calcium concentration, a biomarker for vitamin D toxicity, did not increase during 1 year of intervention with 125 µg/day vitamin D, although urinary calcium concentration increased at 3, 6, and 9 months, but not at 12 months. When 25 µg/day vitamin D or less was consumed, some subjects reported gastrointestinal discomfort.

AI, Adequate Intake; BMD, bone mineral density; 25OHD, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; PTH, parathyroid hormone

Fortification with Vitamin D        

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ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
12785 Fortification types Sci-Hub 2019_compressed.pdf PDF 2019 admin 13 Oct, 2019 16:56 520.40 Kb 50
10258 Fortification vs year.jpg admin 31 Jul, 2018 17:01 50.94 Kb 453
7881 Vit D fortification SE Asia 2013.pdf PDF admin 26 Mar, 2017 15:57 375.14 Kb 607
7880 NZ fortification 2014.pdf PDF 2014 admin 26 Mar, 2017 15:44 701.69 Kb 633
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