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Vitamin D fortification could eliminate 1 in 10 Cancer deaths in the EU – May 2022

Vitamin D foodfortification in European countries: the underused potential to prevent cancer deaths

Eur J Epidemiol. 2022 May 6. doi: 10.1007/s10654-022-00867-4
Tobias Niedermaier 1, Thomas Gredner 2, Sabine Kuznia 2 3, Ben Schöttker 2 4, Ute Mons 2 5 6, Jeroen Lakerveld 7, Wolfgang Ahrens 8 9, Hermann Brenner 2 4 10 11, PEN-Consortium

Background: Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials have shown that vitamin D supplementation reduces cancer mortality by 13%. Vitamin D fortification of foods may increase vitamin D levels in a similar manner as vitamin D supplementation and could achieve similar reductions in cancer mortality. Whereas some European countries already implemented widespread fortification of foods with vitamin D, in other countries only few or no foods are fortified. In this study, we estimated the reduction in cancer mortality presumably already achieved by current fortification policies in 2017 and the potential for further reductions if all countries had effective fortification.

Methods: We reviewed scientific literature, publicly available information, and contacted health authorities to obtain information on current vitamin D food fortification policies in 34 European countries. Together with country-specific cancer death statistics from Eurostat, information on life expectancy, and country-specific fortification policies, we used data from studies on supplementation and serum 25(OH)D increases and cancer mortality to estimate numbers of probably already prevented cancer deaths and numbers of potentially further preventable deaths and years of life lost.

Results: Current vitamin D fortification is estimated to prevent approximately 11,000 in the European Union and 27,000 cancer deaths in all European countries considered per year. If all countries considered here would implement adequate vitamin D fortification of foods, an estimated additional 129,000 cancer deaths (113,000 in the European Union) could be prevented, corresponding to almost 1.2 million prevented years of life lost (1.0 million in the EU) or approximately 9% of cancer deaths (10% in the EU).

Interpretation: Systematic fortification of foods might considerably reduce the burden of cancer deaths in Europe.

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Table of forification status in European Countries


  • ++ Mandatory fortification with adequate amounts covering an adequate range (four or more commonly consumed foods) of products;
  • + Wide-spread voluntary fortification but with insufficient amounts or adequate mandatory fortification of too few products;
  • o Insufficient mandatory fortification plus some voluntary fortification,
  • - No mandatory fortification but some voluntary fortification of foods;
  • — No mandatory fortification and almost no voluntary fortification of foods.

VitaminDWiki - >10 X more helped if also consider Diabetes, Obesity, Smoking, Pregnancy, etc.

VitaminDWiki - 23 Vitamin D fortification studies in Europe

This list is automatically updated

VitaminDWiki - Fortification with Vitamin D

134 items in Fortification category

Fortification works, even if food is cooked, but govts rarely fortifiy with enough
Govts, food producers, and families can fortify:
   milk,   yogurt,   beer,   bread,  cereals,  cooking oil,  soups,  jams,   jellys,   honey,   snack bars, etc.
Some interesting fortification articles

VitaminDWiki - Bread Fortification

VitaminDWiki Fortification pages with BREAD in title

This list is automatically updated

Items found: 13

VitaminDWiki - Change of Vitamin D Fortification in Denmark

VitaminDWiki - Prevent Cancer deaths with Vitamin D

VitaminDWiki - Weekly Vitamin D has been proven to fight 49 health problems

Randomized Controlled Trials using 50,000 IU of Vitamin D

VitaminDWiki recommends encouraging, but not demanding fortification

  • Governments could, for example, pay for the vitamin D added to beverages, bread. etc.
  • Give the customers the option of buying the food fortified with vitamin D, at perhaps the same price
  • Letting fortification be optional will allow a >10 X increase in the fortification dose
    • When fortification is mandatory the regulators keep the dose so low that even the rare people( 1 in 300?) that accumulate vitamin D will not be harmed

VitaminDWiki - Increased use of D has

People have been noticing, and increasing vitamin D (55 items)

Studies are showing increased Vitamin D consumption and associated
      Increased levels of vitamin D PLUS increased health

More people with more than 50 ng is.gd/50ngVitD

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
17563 EU fortification.jpg admin 07 May, 2022 356.03 Kb 371
17562 Prevent Cancer in Europe.pdf admin 07 May, 2022 736.04 Kb 180