Vitamin D-fortified cooking oil is an effective way to improve vitamin D status: an institutional efficacy trial
Eur J Nutr (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-019-02103-4
Nikooyeh, B., Zargaraan, A., Kalayi, A. et al
60 lunches (3 months) at two factories in Iran
30 grams of sunflower cooking oil per person– add Vitamin D:
~500 IU (after cooking) or 0 IU (at a location 40 km away)
Raised Vitamin D levels by 9 ng/ml in 3 months
Note: It appears that workers could elect to participate - this is not a Randomized Controlled Trial!
Seems strange that the control group (not fortified with vitamin D) had decreases in Vitamin D levels in blood, etc
Fortification with Vitamin D in VitaminDWiki
Fortification works, even if food is cooked, but govts rarely fortifiy with enough
Govts, food producers, and families can fortify:
milk, yogurt, beer, bread, cereals, cooking oil, soups, jams, jellys, honey, snack bars, etc.
Some interesting fortification articles
- After years of adding vitamin D, Finland now has 35 ng levels - March 2022
- Vitamin D fortification of edible oils in India starting in 2017
- Vitamin D food fortification – many trials listed – Aug 2018
- Vitamin D fortification of beverages – Review March 2022
- International Conference of Vitamin D Fortification of Food (India) – Sept 2018
- Fortification with Vitamin D works – 16 studies of Danish experience – July 2021
High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) justifies a cost-effective and sustainable strategy to combat VDD in the community. This study was undertaken for the first time to evaluate the efficacy of daily consumption of vitamin D fortified sunflower oil with a meal.
This single-blind trial was conducted in two separate institutions: one as intervention (D-fortified sunflower oil) group (DO, n1 = 39) and the other as control (unfortified sunflower oil) group (SO, n2 = 33). Participants consumed their lunches cooked either with D-fortified or unfortified cooking sunflower oil (500 IU/30 g) for 12 weeks. Dietary, anthropometric and biochemical assessments were done for all participants before and after the intervention.
A total of 65 subjects from both sexes aged 32.5 ± 4 years completed the intervention period. Serum 25(OH)D showed a significant increase in DO and a decrease in SO group (8.8 ± 9.3 vs. − 7.4 ± 6.4 ng/mL, p < 0.001). The rise in serum 25(OH)D in DO group was accompanied by a significant decrease in iPTH (DO: − 10.2 ± 29.4 vs. SO: + 9.2 ± 29.5 pg/mL; p = 0.009). A significant reduction in weight (p = 0.004), BMI (p = 0.029), waist girth (p < 0.001), serum total cholesterol (p = 0.0290) and LDL-C (p = 0.010) was observed in DO, as compared with SO group.
Cooking oil can be considered as an efficacious vehicle for mass fortification program to combat VDD. The improvement of vitamin D status may bring about betterment of certain cardiometabolic risk factors.
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