Improvement of Vitamin D Status via Daily Intake of Fortified Yogurt Drink Either with or without Extra Calcium Ameliorates Systemic Inflammatory Biomarkers, including Adipokines, in the Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism March 22, 2012 jc.2011-3465
Tirang R. Neyestani, Bahareh Nikooyeh, Hamid Alavi-Majd, Nastaran Shariatzadeh, Ali Kalayi, Nima Tayebinejad, Soudabeh Heravifard, Shabnam Salekzamani and Malihe Zahedirad
Laboratory of Nutrition Research, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute and Faculty of Nutrition and Food Technology (T.R.N., B.N., N.S., A.K., N.T., S.H., S.S., M.Z.), and Department of Biostatistics (H.A.-M.), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 1981619573 Tehran, Iran
Address all correspondence and requests for reprints to: Dr. Tirang R. Neyestani, Laboratory of Nutrition Research, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute (NNFTRI), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 1981619573 Tehran, Iran. E-mail: t.neyestani at nnftri.ac.ir or neytr at yahoo.com.
Context: Systemic inflammation is thought to have a central role in diabetic long-term complications.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin D either with or without extra calcium on certain inflammatory biomarkers in the subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial conducted over 12 wk in 90 T2D subjects aged 30–60 yr from both sexes.
Intervention: Subjects were randomly allocated to one of three groups to receive two 250-ml bottles a day of
- plain Persian yogurt drink or doogh (PD, containing 150 mg calcium and no detectable vitamin D3/250 ml),
- vitamin D-fortified doogh (DD, containing 500 IU vitamin D3 and 150 mg calcium/250 ml), or
- calcium + vitamin D3-fortified doogh (CDD, containing 500 IU vitamin D3 and 250 mg calcium/250 ml).
Outcome Measures: The changes in inflammatory markers were evaluated.
Results: Compared to the baseline values, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, IL-1?, IL-6, fibrinogen, and retinol binding protein-4 concentrations significantly decreased in both the DD and CDD groups. Although the decrement in highly sensitive C-reactive protein and fibrinogen was more in CDD compared to DD (?4.0 ± 8.5 vs. ?1.3 ± 2.8 mg/liter, and ?0.40 ± 0.74 and ?0.20 ± 0.52 mg/liter, respectively), the differences were not significant.
There was a significant increase in serum adiponectin in both the DD and CDD groups (51.3 ± 65.3 vs. 57.1 ± 33.8 ?g/liter; P < 0.05).
Mean adiponectin changes in CDD were significantly higher than in PD (P = 0.021).
Conclusions: Daily intake of vitamin D-fortified doogh improved inflammatory markers in T2D subjects, and extra calcium conferred additional benefit only for the antiinflammatory adipokine, i.e. adiponectin.
Received December 24, 2011; Accepted February 29, 2012.
Copyright © 2012 by The Endocrine Society
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