Is vitamin D-fortified yogurt a value-added strategy for improving human health? A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.
J Dairy Sci. 2019 Aug 7. pii: S0022-0302(19)30676-9. doi: 10.3168/jds.2018-16046.
- Vitamin D home fortification- don't wait 100 years for your govt
- Children no longer get much vitamin D from milk - fortify at home
- YOU can add Vitamin D to your own yogurt, milk, etc at useful levels
- Govts must limit theamount of fortification such that not even 1 in 10,000 people do not get too much
- 5000 IU of vitamin D in daily bread substantially improved quality of life in nursing home – May 2014
- Vitamin D food fortification– optimization science in Belgium – June 2019
- Whole-Fat or Nonfat Dairy -The Debate Continues (less vitamin D) - Dec 2018**It is doubtful that Vitamin D foritfied low-fat yogurt would increase blood level of vitamin D very much))
Gasparri C1, Perna S2, Spadaccini D3, Alalwan T2, Girometta C4, Infantino V5, Rondanelli M6.
- 1 Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Section of Human Nutrition, Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy. Electronic address: clara.gasparri01 at universitadipavia.it.
- 2 Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Bahrain, Sakhir Campus, PO Box 32038, Kingdom of Bahrain.
- 3 Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Section of Human Nutrition, Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.
- 4 Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.
- 5 Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70121 Bari, Italy.
- 6 IRCCS Mondino Foundation, 27100 Pavia, Italy; Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Unit of Human and Clinical Nutrition, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.
Yogurt is a good source of probiotics, calcium, and proteins, but its content of vitamin D is low. Therefore, yogurt could be a good choice for vitamin D fortification to improve the positive health outcomes associated with its consumption. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of vitamin D-fortified yogurt compared with plain yogurt on levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD). The secondary aim was to evaluate the effect of fortified yogurt on parathyroid hormone, anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and lipid profile. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for eligible studies; that is, randomized controlled trials (RCT) that compared vitamin D-fortified yogurt with control treatment without any additional supplement. Random-effects models were used to estimate pooled effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals.
Findings from 9 RCT (n = 665 participants) that lasted from 8 to 16 wk are summarized in this review. The meta-analyzed mean differences for random effects showed that vitamin D-fortified yogurt (from 400 to 2,000 IU) increased serum 25OHD by 31.00 nmol/L.
In addition, vitamin D-fortified yogurt
- parathyroid hormone by 15.47 ng/L,
- body weight by 0.92 kg,
- waist circumference by 2.01 cm,
- HOMA-IR by 2.18 mass units,
- fasting serum glucose by 22.54 mg/dL,
- total cholesterol by 13.38 mg/dL, and
- triglycerides by 30.12 mg/dL
compared with the controlled treatments.
No publication bias was identified. Considerable between-study heterogeneity was observed for most outcomes. Vitamin D-fortified yogurt may be beneficial in improving serum 25OHD, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and anthropometric parameters and decreasing parathyroid hormone level in pregnant women and adult and elderly subjects with or without diabetes, prediabetes, or metabolic syndrome.