Bioaccessibility of Vitamin D from Bread Fortified with UV-Treated Yeast is Lower than Bread Fortified with Crystalline Vitamin D2 and Bovine Milk
The FASEB Journal, April 2016, vol. 30 no. 1 Supplement 918.6
Tristan E Lipkie1, Mario Ferruzzi2 and Connie M Weaver3
1Cargill Global Food Research, Minneapolis, MN
2Food Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
3Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN
UV-treated yeast may be used as a vitamin D fortificant in bakery products, yet the vitamin D status of rats fed bread fortified with vitamin D2 enhanced yeast was lower than those fed a diet with crystalline vitamin D3. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the digestive release and micellarization (bioaccessibility) of vitamin D from yeast might be a limiting factor. White wheat and whole wheat bread fortified with vitamin D2-enhanced yeast or crystalline vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 fortified bovine milks (skim, 2%, and whole) were subject to in vitro digestion, and analyzed by HPLC-MS.
Bioaccessibility was greater (p<0.05) from
- bovine milks (70–85%) than from
- breads fortified with vitamin D2 enhanced yeast (6.0–7.5%).
Bioaccessibility was about 4× greater from breads fortified with crystalline vitamin D2 than those with vitamin D2 enriched yeast. Presence of intact yeast cells after simulated gastric and upper intestinal digestion suggests that vitamin D may be entrapped within yeast cell membranes. These data suggest that low digestive release of vitamin D from yeast may partly explain the low apparent bioavailability as compared to crystalline vitamin D2 and D3 and additional processing may be required to enhance the digestive release of vitamin D from yeast.
Support provided by Purdue University and the USDA National Needs Fellowship Program.
This abstract is from the Experimental Biology 2016 Meeting. There is no full text article associated with this abstract published in The FASEB Journal.
Note The FDA allowed bread to be fortified with Vitamin D2 yeast
FDA raises the amount of vitamin D2 fortification in bread – Aug 2012
Unfortunately this study shows that Vitamin D in yeast is NOT bioaccessable
Wouold have been nice if the FDA had checked to see if the vitamin D actually got into the blood stream