Scand J Public Health, 1403494819896878 2020 Jan 9, DOI: 10.1177/1403494819896878
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Suvi T Itkonen 1, Rikke Andersen 2, Anne K Björk 3, Åsa Brugård Konde 4, Hanna Eneroth 4, Maijaliisa Erkkola 1, Kristin Holvik 5, Ahmed A Madar 6, Haakon E Meyer 5 6, Inge Tetens 7, Jóhanna E Torfadóttir 8 9, Birna Thórisdóttir 9 10, Christel J E Lamberg-Allardt 1
Aims: Nordic countries share fairly similar food culture and geographical location as well as common nutrition recommendations. The aim of this paper was to review the latest data on vitamin D status and intake and to describe the national supplementation and food fortification policies to achieve adequate vitamin D intake in the Nordic countries.
Methods: The data are based on results derived from a literature search presented in a workshop held in Helsinki in November 2018 and completed by recent studies.
Results: Vitamin D policies and the implementation of the recommendations differ among the Nordic countries. Vitamin D fortification policies can be mandatory or voluntary and widespread, moderate or non-existent. Vitamin D supplementation recommendations differ, ranging from all age groups being advised to take supplements to only infants. In the general adult population of the Nordic countries, vitamin D status and intake are better than in the risk groups that are not consuming vitamin D supplements or foods containing vitamin D. Non-Western immigrant populations in all Nordic countries share the problem of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency.
Conclusions: Despite the common nutrition recommendations, there are differences between the Nordic countries in the implementation of the recommendations and policies to achieve adequate vitamin D intake and status. There is a need for wider Nordic collaboration studies as well as strategies to improve vitamin D status, especially in risk groups.