Trends in Food Science & Technology, Volume 102, August 2020, Pages 62-70, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2020.05.018
- Three methods to produce eggs naturally enhanced with vitamin D was reviewed.
- There is a linear inter-trial relationship between vitamin D3 in feed and vitamin D3 content in egg.
- Feed is superior to UVB irradiation in regards to vitamin D enhancement in eggs.
- Egg yolk can be vitamin D enhanced by direct exposure to UVB radiation.
- Naturally enhanced eggs can contribute to increased vitamin D intake in the general population.
Adding Vitamin D to chickens has been know to improve chickens, meat, eggs, taste, etc. But for some reason, restoring the vitamin D levels of the chickens back to what they had been when outdoors is not permitted
- Feed chicken lots of vitamin D, get 6000 IU per egg with no change in production – Nov 2013
- Chicken bones, eggs, and activated vitamin D in eggs increased with 2 hours of daily UVB – Dec 2019
- Vitamin D in eggs increased 4X after UV lighting near legs was added – April 2019
- Hens with Vitamin D were better in at least 5 ways – RCT Aug 2018
- In less than 3 weeks chickens have problems if they do not have vitamin D
- Hens fed a form of vitamin D had more hatchable eggs and more immune chicks – March 2015
- Increasing Vitamin D to chickens should reduce incidence of bird flu
- UVB on legs of chickens resulted in 70 IU vitamin D per egg yoke – July 2013
- 200 IU per 100 gram of egg yoke when add vitamin D to poultry feed in Europe – Aug 2011
Fortification works, even if food is cooked, but govts rarely fortifiy with enough
Govts, food producers, and families can fortify:
milk, yogurt, beer, bread, cereals, cooking oil, soups, jams, jellys, honey, snack bars, etc.
Some interesting fortification articles
- After years of adding vitamin D, Finland now has 35 ng levels - March 2022
- Fortification with Vitamin D works – 16 studies of Danish experience – July 2021
- Vitamin D fortification of beverages – Review March 2022
- Vitamin D-fortified bread: Systematic review – March 2022
- International Conference of Vitamin D Fortification of Food (India) – Sept 2018
- 2400 IU of vitamin D needed to get most Northern adults above 20 ng – June 2020
- Most Fortification studies do not give enough to make a difference
- Vitamin D home fortification- don't wait 100 years for your govt
It is estimated that on annual basis 40% of the European population is either vitamin D insufficient/deficient. A way to increase the vitamin D intake is to fortify a broader range of foods or by increasing the natural vitamin D content in food sources that already contain vitamin D. Eggs is once again considered part of a healthy varied diet and eggs contain a wide range of micro nutrients including vitamin D.
Scope and approach
Review of production methods to naturally enhance eggs with vitamin D, and discussion of the perspectives of vitamin D enhanced eggs as part of the strategy to increase the dietary intake of vitamin D.
Key findings and conclusions
There are three ways to naturally enhance the vitamin D content in eggs: feeding more vitamin D3/25(OH)D3 to the hens, exposing the hens to UVB and exposing liquid egg products to UVB. Naturally enhanced eggs can contribute to increased vitamin D intake. An inter-trial linear relationship between vitamin D3 in feed and vitamin D3 in eggs was found. Within the linear range a maximum of 20 μg/100 g yolk was obtained with feed contain 617.5 μg/kg feed. Feed can provide higher levels of vitamin D in eggs than UVB exposure of the hens. However, the European maximum for vitamin D in feed for layers at 80 μg/kg limits the beneficial effect. Vitamin D content in liquid egg products can be tailored by adjusting the UVB dose, however further research is needed.
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