Iron and Vitamin D Deficiency in Healthy Young Children in Western Europe Despite Current Nutritional Recommendations
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition: April 2016 - Volume 62 - Issue 4 - p 635–642, doi: 10.1097/MPG.0000000000001015
Akkermans, Marjolijn D.; van der Horst-Graat, Judith M.; Eussen, Simone R.B.M.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Brus, Frank
Study of UK, Germany and Netherlands
These countries rarely fortify food – such as milk
Studied children aged 1-3 years
Cows milk increased odd of vitamin D deficiency by 7 times – if not supplement
See also VitaminDWiki
- Anemia in children 3.5 X more likely if low vitamin D – March 2018
- Danes opposed to Vitamin D fortification, will get more COPD, diabetes, depression, lupus, leg pain, etc – Oct 2015
- Vitamin D fortification helps– now proven in Germany as well – RCT Dec 2013
probably will take 10+ years to fortify German food with Vitamin D
Typically takes a century for govts to fortify food with nutrients (like vitamin D)
- Vitamin D home fortification- don't wait 100 years for your govt
- UK Milk producer sets vitamin D day, yet UK milk rarely has vitamin D – March 31 2013
- Low fat milk provides 2.5 times less vitamin D – May 2016
wonder how many infants who become allergic to cow's milk drank low-fat milk
- Allergy - Overview which has the following
Food Allergy 5X more likely if low vitamin D – Oct 2014
Food allergies in children 40 % more likely in urban areas (which have less vitamin D) – Sept 2012
- Milk – Vitamin D deficiency 2X more likely if lactose intolerant, milk allergy, or low fat milk – 2017
Background and aim: Iron deficiency (ID) and vitamin D deficiency (VDD) are the 2 most common micronutrient deficiencies in young children worldwide and may lead to impaired neurodevelopment and rickets, respectively. Risk factors for ID and VDD differ between populations. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for ID and VDD in 12- to 36-month-old children in Western Europe.
Methods: This study took place in Germany, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom from 2012 to 2014. A venous blood sample was taken to establish iron and vitamin D status. ID was defined as serum ferritin <12 μg/L in the absence of infection (high sensitivity C-reactive protein <10 mg/L). VDD was defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D <50 nmol/L (20 ng/mL). Furthermore, parents were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding their child's demographic- and socioeconomic characteristics, food intake, sun exposure, and medical history.
Results: In 325 children (white race 95%, boys 56%, mean age 20.7 months) the overall prevalence of ID and VDD was 11.8% and 22.8%, respectively. The use of primarily cow's milk as major type of milk was associated with ID (odds ratio [OR] 3.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12–8.53) and VDD (OR 7.17, 95% CI 3.10–16.57). The use of vitamin D supplements (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.07–0.56) was associated with a lower prevalence of VDD.
Conclusion: Despite current nutritional recommendations, ID and VDD are common in healthy young white children. Health programs focusing on adequate iron and vitamin D intake at an early age should be implemented to prevent deficiencies.