Randomized controlled trial of the effects of vitamin D–fortified milk and bread on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in families in Denmark during winter: the VitmaD study.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug;98(2):374-82. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.113.059469.
Madsen KH, Rasmussen LB, Andersen R, Mølgaard C, Jakobsen J, Bjerrum PJ, Andersen EW, Mejborn H, Tetens I.
Division of Nutrition, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Søborg, Denmark. kjma at food.dtu.dk
Summary RCT by VitaminDWiki Starting with 29 ng, 400 IU group dropped to 27 ng, 88 IU group dropped to 17 ng
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D intakes are lower than dietary recommendations in most populations, and thus, a low vitamin D status is widespread, especially during winter.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of increasing vitamin D intake to the recommended amount by fortification of milk and bread on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D 25(OH)D concentrations in families during winter in Denmark.
DESIGN: The study was a randomized controlled trial in 782 children and adults (4-60 y old) recruited as 201 families. Families were randomly assigned to vitamin D-fortified or nonfortified milk and bread for 6 mo starting in September. The milk and bread replaced the participants' usual consumptions of products.
RESULTS: Median (IQR) vitamin D intakes (habitual diet plus fortified products) were 9.4 mg/d (6.5, 12.3 mg/d) and 2.2 mg/d (1.5, 3.0 mg/d) in fortification and control groups, respectively. Geometric mean (IQR) serum 25(OH)D concentrations decreased from 73.1 nmol/L (61.9, 88.5 nmol/L) to 67.6 nmol/L (56.2, 79.4 nmol/L) in the fortification group and from 71.1 nmol/L (61.2, 85.9 nmol/L) to 41.7 nmol/L (29.5, 58.9 nmol/L) in the control group (both P , 0.001). The final 25(OH)D concentration was significantly higher in the fortification group than in the control group (P , 0.001). By the end of the study, ,1% of subjects in the fortification group and 25% of subjects in the control group had 25(OH)D concentrations ,30 nmol/L and 16% and 65% of subjects, respectively, had 25(OH)D concentrations ,50 nmol/L.
CONCLUSION: Vitamin D fortification of milk and bread reduces the decrease in serum 25(OH)D concentrations during winter and ensures 25(OH)D concentrations .50 nmol/L in children and adults in Denmark.
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