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US children not getting enough vitamin D, recommends free milks and perhaps 3X increased fortification – Sept 2022


Perspective: School Meal Programs Require Higher Vitamin D Fortification Levels in Milk Products and Plant-Based Alternatives—Evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 2001–2018)

Advances in Nutrition, Vol 13, # 5, Sept 2022, Pages 1440–1449,
  https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmac068 (view for free at DeepDive)
Mona S Calvo, Susan J Whiting

Poor vitamin D status impairs bone growth and immune defense in school-aged children and adolescents, particularly in minorities. Vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency increases the risk of acute viral respiratory infection, underscoring the need for adequate vitamin D intakes during school sessions when viral exposure may be greatest. We studied available vitamin D–related survey data and published findings based on NHANES (2001–2018) to assess the dependency of vitamin D status (25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]; in nmol/L) on vitamin D intake (μg/d) in elementary school–aged children (4–8 y), middle school children (9–13 y), and high school adolescents (14–18 y). We sought evidence supporting the need for school programs to facilitate vitamin D adequacy. Usual vitamin D intakes from food and beverages by children/adolescents (NHANES 2015–2018) examined at the 50th percentile intake by race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic) showed all age groups consumed less than half of the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for vitamin D (10 μg/d), independent of race/ethnicity. NHANES (2001–2010) analyses show evidence of lower vitamin D status in school-aged children that is linked to lower intakes of fortified milk varying over race/ethnicity and age. Adolescents had lower vitamin D status and milk intake than younger children. A total of 22–44% of vitamin D intakes occurred away from home, with larger percentages of total intakes at breakfast and lunch, at times consistent with school meals. Ever-present inadequate vitamin D intakes with a large percentage consumed away from home together with well-established benefits to growth, bone, and immune defense from enriched vitamin D–fortified milk in school intervention trials provide strong justification to require enriched vitamin D–fortified foods in school meals. An easy to implement plan for improving vitamin D intakes is possible through the FDA's amendment allowing higher vitamin D fortification levels of dairy and plant-based milk alternatives that could increase vitamin D intakes beyond the EAR with just 2 daily servings.

Clipped from PDF

  1. School intervention trials also provide evidence of increased milk consumption when fortified milk is offered atno cost, as well as better
    • attendance,
    • test scores,
    • bone growth and
    • resistance to viral infection.”
  2. “Swedish researchers determined that children with fair skin require less vitamin D (14 ug/d or 560 lU/d) compared to darker skinned children who required 28 ug/d or 1,120 IU/d to maintain circulating 25(OH)D > 50 nmol/L in winter (63).”

Fails to address: preschool. older children, no milk in summer, weekends, need more to get >20 ng

Might be better to fortify bread: see below


VitaminDWiki - Fortification with Vitamin D

124 items in Fortification category

Fortification works, even if food is cooked, but govts rarely fortifiy with enough
Govts, food producers, and families can fortify:
   milk,   yogurt,   beer,   bread,  cereals,  cooking oil,  soups,  jams,   jellys,   honey,   snack bars, etc.
Some interesting fortification articles


VitaminDWiki - Bread Fortification (11 as of Oct 2022)

VitaminDWiki Fortification pages with BREAD in title
This list is automatically updated

Items found: 11


VitaminDWiki - Change of Vitamin D Fortification in Denmark


There are problems with increasing milk (Calcium) intake


L|D2 sometimes DECREASES vitamin D3 levels))


Instead of waiting decades for more fortification, just give your child 50,000 IU of vitamin D3 once a month

50,000 IU monthly = 1600 IU daily
Third study found that Infants needed 1600 IU of vitamin D – JAMA RCT May 2013
Summary: 1600 IU vitamin D daily ==> 98% of infants >30 ng
Can get 50,000 IU Vitamin D anywhere on the globe
Vitamin D home fortification- don't wait 100 years for your govt

Alternatively: 10,000 IU every SUNday (1400 IU daily average)


Created by admin. Last Modification: Wednesday October 5, 2022 20:31:17 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 13)