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Preeclampsia risk reduced by Vitamin D

Could Vitamin D Be Effective in Prevention of Preeclampsia? - Oct 2021

Nutrients 2021, 13(11), 3854; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113854
by Elżbieta Poniedziałek-Czajkowska *ORCID andRadzisław MierzyńskiORCID
Chair and Department of Obstetrics and Perinatology, Medical University of Lublin, 20-954 Lublin, Poland

(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnancy Disorders)

Prevention of preeclampsia (PE) remains one of the most significant problems in perinatal medicine. Due to the possible unpredictable course of hypertension in pregnancy, primarily PE and the high complication rate for the mother and fetus/newborn, it is urgent to offer pregnant women in high-risk groups effective methods of preventing the PE development or delaying its appearance. In addition, due to the association of PE with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in later life, effective preeclampsia prevention could also be important in reducing their incidence. Ideal PE prophylaxis should target the pathogenetic changes leading to the development of PE and be safe for the mother and fetus, inexpensive and freely available. Currently, the only recognized method of PE prevention recommended by many institutions around the world is the use of a small dose of acetylsalicylic acid in pregnant women with risk factors. Unfortunately, some cases of PE are diagnosed in women without recognized risk factors and in those in whom prophylaxis with acetylsalicylic acid is not adequate. Hence, new drugs which would target pathogenetic elements in the development of preeclampsia are studied. Vitamin D (Vit D) seems to be a promising agent due to its beneficial effect on placental implantation, the immune system, and angiogenic factors. Studies published so far emphasize the relationship of its deficiency with the development of PE, but the data on the benefits of its supplementation to reduce the risk of PE are inconclusive. In the light of current research, the key issue is determining the protective concentration of Vit D in a pregnant woman. The study aims to present the possibility of using Vit D to prevent PE, emphasizing its impact on the pathogenetic elements of preeclampsia development.

Preeclampsia Vitamin DTrials

more columns are in the PDF

Preeclampsia meta-analyses



Currently, the commonly recommended preeclampsia prophylaxis is the use of low doses of acetylsalicylic acid in high-risk pregnant women and, by some institutions, calcium supplementation in groups with its deficiencies in the diet. Numerous studies are being conducted on the use of other substances and drugs for this purpose, which, due to their properties and mechanisms of action, could prevent the development of preeclampsia. One of these thoroughly studied substances is vitamin D. Based on the results of research explaining its mechanism of action and understanding the reasons and pathophysiology of the development of preeclampsia, it might be postulated that an anti-inflammatory effect of Vit D and its beneficial influence on the endothelium constitutes its potential use in PE prevention. Unfortunately, the results of the randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses are ambiguous. Despite the multitude of studies published on this subject, there are no clear conclusions about its effectiveness in PE prevention which could form the basis for developing universal recommendations.
In the light of the available data, the following issues regarding the role of vitamin D in preventing preedampsia remain unresolved:

  • 1. Should the target group for vitamin D supplementation be all pregnant women or only those at high risk?
  • 2. Should it be recommended to test the vitamin D concentration in the periconceptional period and the early first trimester in all pregnant women or a high-risk group?
  • 3. Since when (during the planning period of pregnancy or in the first trimester),
    • how long and what doses of vitamin D should be proposed considering the safety of offspring?
  • 4. What vitamin D level in the periconceptional period and the first trimester should be considered sufficient?

These questions may determine the direction of research on vitamin D in the prevention of preeclampsia.
It seems that the fundamental issue, despite the extensive literature, remains the assessment of Vit D concentration in the periconceptional period and/or the early first trimester and defining levels that would allow reducing the risk of PE development. Women with risk factors for Vit D deficiency such as obesity, kidney, liver, thyroid gland diseases, chronic bowel diseases, autoimmune diseases, asthma, diabetes t.2, hypertension, and chronic glucocorticoids, antiepileptic and antiretroviral drug treatment would benefit the most from screening. It appears that patients with risk factors for PE development and Vit D deficiency may require higher doses of vitamin D than commonly recommended for pregnant women.

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VitaminDWiki pages with PREECLAMPSIA in title (49 as of Oct 2021)

This list is automatically updated

Items found: 54
Title Modified
Preeclampsia reduced by 33 percent if high vitamin D – meta-analysis Feb 2023 23 Feb, 2023
Risk of preeclampsia should drop to nearly zero at 60 ng of Vitamin D – July 2022 22 Jul, 2022
Vitamin D reduces preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and hypertension - 38th meta-analysis Dec 2021 31 May, 2022
Low Vitamin D associated with preeclampsia - meta-analysis Feb 2022 24 Mar, 2022
Preeclampsia risk reduced by Vitamin D 28 Oct, 2021
Seasonal variation on preeclampsia is correlated with sunlight intensity - June 2010 28 Oct, 2021
No Preeclampsia during pregnancy if more than 60 ng of vitamin D – RCT July 2013 02 Jul, 2021
Child 49 percent higher risk of being overweight if preeclampsia during pregnancy – Sept 2017 02 Jul, 2021
Hypertension in pregnancy (preeclampsia) more frequent in winter (low vitamin D) – Jan 2015 22 Jun, 2021
Preeclampsia (hypertension while pregnant) varies with season (O.R. 0.57) – June 2021 22 Jun, 2021
Preeclampsia (low vitamin D) doubles the risk of later cardiovascular problems – Sept 2019 07 Oct, 2019
Preeclampsia 11X more likely if poor Vitamin D Binding Protein (South Africa) - Sept 2019 29 Sep, 2019
Vitamin D cuts pregnancy risks in half – low birth weight, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes – Cochrane July 2019 12 Sep, 2019
Preeclampsia 2.7 X less likely if 50,000 IU of Vitamin D every 2 weeks – meta-analysis Sept 2019 06 Sep, 2019
Preeclampsia 2X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – April 2019 23 Apr, 2019
Preeclampsia 3X more likely if low vitamin D at 25th week – April 2012 20 Feb, 2019
Preeclampsia 2.7X more frequent if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2013 20 Feb, 2019
Preeclampsia rate cut in half by high level of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2014 20 Feb, 2019
Preeclampsia risk reduced 7X by 4,000 IU of Vitamin D daily – RCT March 2018 20 Feb, 2019
Preeclampsia of offspring cut in half if mother who smoked had vitamin D fortified margarine – Dec 2017 20 Feb, 2019
Preeclampsia is not reduced by vitamin D (if you ignore vitamin D level, dose size, frequency and duration) – July 2017 20 Feb, 2019
Preeclampsia inversely proportional to serum Magnesium – Oct 2014 20 Feb, 2019
Preeclampsia risk reduced by higher levels of vitamin D (VDAART 4,400 IU) - RCT Nov 2016 20 Feb, 2019
Preeclampsia reduced 1.7 X by aspirin (but reduced 7 X by Vitamin D) – Feb 2018 22 Aug, 2018
Vitamin D Receptor is associated with preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth – Nov 2017 10 Nov, 2017
Preeclampsia reduced 2X by Vitamin D, by 5X if also add Calcium – meta-analysis Oct 2017 24 Oct, 2017
Preeclampsia risk reduced 60 percent if supplement with Vitamin D (they ignored dose size) – meta-analysis Sept 2017 08 Sep, 2017
Risk of preeclampsia might be cut in half if take an amount of Vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2017 04 Sep, 2017
Preeclampsia reoccurred half as often if get 50,000 IU of Vitamin D every two weeks – Aug 2017 22 Aug, 2017
Dark-skined mothers: preeclampsia 12X more likely if gestational hypertension – May 2014 17 Aug, 2017
Preeclampsia recurrence reduced 2 X by 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks – RCT July 2017 17 Jul, 2017
Preeclampsia doubles the risk of mild cognitive impairment – July 2017 05 Jul, 2017
Preeclampsia changes to Vitamin D Binding Protein reduces Vitamin D in placenta – Dec 2016 18 Dec, 2016
Preeclampsia 3.5 times more likely if low vitamin D (affects 348 Vit. D genes) – RCT Nov 2016 15 Nov, 2016
Vitamin D supplementation of all pregnant women (in UK) would be cost effective – just considering preeclampsia – March 2016 09 Jul, 2016
Preeclampsia 4X less likely if vitamin D levels increased by 8 ng during pregnancy – March 2016 05 Apr, 2016
Preeclampsia 2X more likely if low vitamin D, unless adjust for vitamin D factors (BMI, skin color) – Dec 2015 21 Jan, 2016
2X more preeclampsia when vitamin D less than 30 ng, etc. - meta-analysis March 2013 16 Jan, 2016
Preeclampsia and eclampsia associated with lower vitamin D, etc. – Sept 2015 13 Nov, 2015
Preeclampsia increased risk of Congenital Heart Defects by 60 percent (vitamin D not mentioned) Oct 2015 28 Oct, 2015
5,000 IU Vitamin D was not enough to reduce preeclampsia but did help future infant – RCT April 2014 15 Oct, 2015
Preeclampsia reduced by Vitamin D (50,000 IU bi-weekly) and Calcium – Oct 2015 15 Oct, 2015
Why preeclampsia is 5X more likely if vitamin D insufficient – Jan 2015 06 Sep, 2015
Preeclampsia – hypothesis as to why vitamin D helps – June 2015 09 Jun, 2015
Preeclampsia was prevented or treated by vitamin D in majority of studies – review May 2015 26 May, 2015
Women with low vitamin D 4X more likely to have preeclampsia in pregnancy – Nov 2010 28 Mar, 2015
7X increase in early severe preeclampsia associated with low vitamin D – Aug 2012 20 Mar, 2015
High blood pressure during pregnancy (preeclampsia) associated with low vitamin D, c-section – Jan 2015 22 Jan, 2015
Preeclampsia 40 percent less likely if had more than 20 ng of vitamin D – Jan 2014 30 Jan, 2014
Preeclampsia 40 percent less likely if mother had more than 20 ng of vitamin D – Jan 2014 30 Jan, 2014
2X more likely to have preeclampsia if less than 20 ng of vitamin D – Meta-analysis Jan 2013 11 Jan, 2014
Almost 3X more likely to get preeclampsia if low vitamin D and high PTH– July 2013 15 Sep, 2013
How to reduce preeclampsia - May 2011 19 Apr, 2013
Low vitamin D results in severe preeclampsia and low birth weight – Mar 2011 27 Nov, 2011

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16509 PE meta.jpg admin 28 Oct, 2021 15:26 215.67 Kb 110
16508 PE RCT.jpg admin 28 Oct, 2021 15:25 106.66 Kb 104
16507 Preeclampsia 2021.pdf PDF 2021 admin 28 Oct, 2021 14:27 989.80 Kb 142