Association of Maternal Vitamin D and Placenta Growth Factor with the Diagnosis of Early Onset Severe Preeclampsia.
Am J Perinatol. 2012 Aug 8.
Robinson CJ, Wagner CL, Hollis BW, Baatz JE, Johnson DD.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina.
Objective Decreased maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) and placenta growth factor (PlGF) have both been associated with the diagnosis of early onset severe preeclampsia (EOSPE). This investigation aimed to define the association of these biomarkers with EOSPE.
Study Design Patients with EOSPE (n = 40) and healthy controls (n = 40) were recruited and information on demographics, outcomes, and plasma was collected at diagnosis of EOSPE or gestational age-matched controls. 25-OH-D was assessed by radioimmunoassay and reported in nanogram per milliliter. PlGF was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reported in picogram per milliliter. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare biomarkers between groups. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine associations between 25-OH-D or PlGF and the diagnosis of EOSPE.
Results In EOSPE, both 25-OH-D and PlGF were decreased significantly compared with controls.
After controlling for age, race, body mass index, and gestational age at sample collection, both 25-OH-D (adjusted odds ratio 0.14 [0.05, 0.36]) and PlGF (adjusted odds ratio 0.03 [0.01, 0.24] were significantly associated with diagnosis of ESOPE (p < 0.001 for both markers).
Conclusion PlGF and 25-OH-D are both associated with the diagnosis of EOSPE.
These biomarkers may be helpful in development of novel rapid diagnostic tests for preeclampsia.
Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA., PMID: 22875657
Vitamin D Deficiency and the Risk of Preeclampsia and Eclampsia in Bangladesh.
Horm Metab Res. 2013 Jun 3.
Ullah MI, Koch CA, Tamanna S, Rouf S, Shamsuddin L.
Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, USA.
Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been proposed as a risk factor for preeclampsia, but no significant studies have been conducted to evaluate its relationship with eclampsia. Our goal in this study was to assess the prevalence and potential risk of vitamin D deficiency for both preeclampsia and eclampsia in Bangladesh. Using a case-control design, we measured serum 25(OH)D levels in pregnant women receiving care at the Dhaka Medical College Hospital with preeclampsia (n=33), eclampsia (n=79), and normal pregnancy (controls, n=76). Odds of developing preeclampsia and eclampsia with vitamin D deficiency were calculated using logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was very high with more than 3 quarters (78%) of all subjects having a serum 25(OH)D level<30 ng/ml. The mean serum 25(OH)D level was 24.86 ng/ml in controls, 23.96 ng/ml in pre-eclamptic women, and 21.56 ng/ml in eclampsia patients. Comparing to those who had a serum 25(OH)D level of ≥30 ng/ml, the odds ratio (95% CI) of developing preeclampsia and eclampsia in mothers with vitamin D insufficiency were 3.9 (95% CI=1.18-12.87) and 5.14 (95% CI=1.98-13.37), respectively (adjusting for age, BMI and duration of pregnancy).
The odds of developing preeclampsia and eclampsia may increase by up to 5-fold in women with vitamin D insufficiency.
Since preeclampsia and eclampsia can lead to serious complications for both mother and the offspring, vitamin D may be supplemented during pregnancy in high risk populations to decrease these adverse consequences.
© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York. PMID: 23733167
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- Pre-eclampsia 3X more likely if low vitamin D at 25th week – April 2012
- 2X more preeclampsia when vitamin D less than 30 ng, etc. - meta-analysis March 2013
- Severe preeclampsia 4X higher when very vitamin D deficient e.g. 10 ng vs 40 ng blood levels
- Preeclampsia and small infants associated with 7 ng less vitamin D – Mar 2011
- How to reduce preeclampsia - May 2011
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- All items in Pregnancy and Vitamin D
- Overview Pregnancy and vitamin D which has the following table as of April 2012
IU Cumulative Benefit Blood level and notes Co-factors Calcium $*/year 400 + less infant rickets
+ 3X less adolescent Schizophrenia
+ fewer child seizures
<30 ng/ml Not needed No effect $3 2000 + More likely to get pregnant naturally or via IVF
+ fewer dental problems with pregnancy
+ 8X less diabetes
+ 4X fewer C-sections (>37 ng)
+ 4X less preeclampsia (40 ng vs 10 ng)
+ 5X less child asthma
+ 2X less language problems age 10
42 ng/ml Desirable < 750 mg $15 4000 + 2X fewer pregnancy complications
+ 2X fewer per-term births
Test Vitamin D
Must have < 750 mg $105 6000 + probable larger benefits for items listed above
+ Enough D for breastfed infant
+ Perhaps prevent 2nd autistic child
Test Vitamin D
clinical trials underway
Must have < 750 mg $1207X increase in early severe preeclampsia associated with low vitamin D – Aug 2012 3709 visitors, last modified 04 Sep, 2017,