SQ Wei1, F Audibert1, N Hidiroglou2,†, K Sarafin2, P Julien3, Y Wu1, ZC Luo1, WD Fraser1
1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sainte-Justine Hospital, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC
2 Bureau of Nutritional Sciences, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON
3 Lipid Research Center, Laval University Medical Center (CHUQ), Québec city, QC, Canada
*SQ Wei, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, CHU Sainte-Justine, Université de Montréal, 5757 Decelles, Montreal, QC H3S 2C3, Canada. Email: shu.qin.wei at umontreal.ca
BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology; Article first published online: 29 MAR 2012
Objective? Whether vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy is a cause of pre-eclampsia remains controversial. Most previous studies to date have assessed exposure at only one time-point in pregnancy. We assessed longitudinal vitamin D status during pregnancy and the risk of pre-eclampsia.
Design? Prospective cohort study.
Setting? Seventeen urban obstetric hospitals, Canada.
Population? Pregnant women who were participants in a trial of vitamin C and E supplementation for the prevention of pre-eclampsia. Canadian participants who consented to participate in a biobank with plasma specimens available at the baseline visit were included (n = 697).
Methods? Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured at 12–18 and 24–26 weeks of gestation using chemiluminescence immunoassay.
Main outcome measures? Pre-eclampsia.
Results? Of the women, 39% were vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D <50 nmol/l). A strong positive correlation was observed in maternal 25(OH)D concentrations between the two gestational age windows (r = 0.69, P < 0.0001).
Mean maternal 25(OH)D concentrations at 24–26 weeks of gestation were significantly lower in women who subsequently developed pre-eclampsia compared with those who did not (mean ± SD: 48.9 ± 16.8 versus 57.0 ± 19.1 nmol/l, P = 0.03).
Women with 25(OH)D < 50 nmol/l at 24–26 weeks gestation experienced an increased risk of pre-eclampsia (adjusted odds ratio 3.24, 95% confidence interval 1.37–7.69), whereas the association was not statistically significant for maternal 25(OH)D level at 12–18 weeks of gestation.
Conclusions? Lower maternal 25(OH)D levels at late mid-trimester were associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia.
Vitamin D Council comment on this study - behind a $5 paywall
Pages listed in BOTH the categories Pregnancy and Hypertension (preeclampsia)
- Preeclampsia (hypertension while pregnant) varies with season (O.R. 0.57) – June 2021
- Preeclampsia (low vitamin D) doubles the risk of later cardiovascular problems – Sept 2019
- Preeclampsia 11X more likely if poor Vitamin D Binding Protein (South Africa) - Sept 2019
- Preeclampsia 2X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – April 2019
- Preeclampsia reduced 1.7 X by aspirin (but reduced 7 X by Vitamin D) – Feb 2018
- Preeclampsia risk reduced 7X by 4,000 IU of Vitamin D daily – RCT March 2018
- Preeclampsia of offspring cut in half if mother who smoked had vitamin D fortified margarine – Dec 2017
- Preeclampsia reduced 2X by Vitamin D, by 5X if also add Calcium – meta-analysis Oct 2017
- Child 49 percent higher risk of being overweight if preeclampsia during pregnancy – Sept 2017
- Preeclampsia risk reduced 60 percent if supplement with Vitamin D (they ignored dose size) – meta-analysis Sept 2017
- Preeclampsia recurrence reduced 2 X by 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks – RCT July 2017
- Preeclampsia is not reduced by vitamin D (if you ignore vitamin D level, dose size, frequency and duration) – July 2017
- Preeclampsia doubles the risk of mild cognitive impairment – July 2017
- No Preeclampsia during pregnancy if more than 60 ng of vitamin D – RCT July 2013
- Preeclampsia changes to Vitamin D Binding Protein reduces Vitamin D in placenta – Dec 2016
- Preeclampsia risk reduced by higher levels of vitamin D (VDAART 4,400 IU) - RCT Nov 2016
- MAGNESIUM IN MAN - IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH AND DISEASE – review 2015
- Preeclampsia 4X less likely if vitamin D levels increased by 8 ng during pregnancy – March 2016
- Preeclampsia 2X more likely if low vitamin D, unless adjust for vitamin D factors (BMI, skin color) – Dec 2015
- Preeclampsia and eclampsia associated with lower vitamin D, etc. – Sept 2015
- Preeclampsia increased risk of Congenital Heart Defects by 60 percent (vitamin D not mentioned) Oct 2015
- Preeclampsia reduced by Vitamin D (50,000 IU bi-weekly) and Calcium – Oct 2015
- Burka clothing reduces vitamin D levels, which causes pregnancy problems – Oct 2015
- Preeclampsia – hypothesis as to why vitamin D helps – June 2015
- Preeclampsia inversely proportional to serum Magnesium – Oct 2014
- Hypertension in pregnancy (preeclampsia) more frequent in winter (low vitamin D) – Jan 2015
- Preeclampsia rate cut in half by high level of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2014
- Preeclampsia 40 percent less likely if mother had more than 20 ng of vitamin D – Jan 2014
- Preeclampsia 2.7X more frequent if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2013
- During pregnancy even 400 IU helps metabolic status – RCT July 2013
- 2X more preeclampsia when vitamin D less than 30 ng, etc. - meta-analysis March 2013
- 7X increase in early severe preeclampsia associated with low vitamin D – Aug 2012
- Preeclampsia 3X more likely if low vitamin D at 25th week – April 2012
- Low vitamin D results in severe preeclampsia and low birth weight – Mar 2011
- Women with low vitamin D 4X more likely to have preeclampsia in pregnancy – Nov 2010
- Seasonal variation in pregnancy hypertension is correlated with sunlight intensity - June 2010
short url for this page; http://is.gd/preeclampsia