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Gestational Diabetes reduce 3 times by 5,000 IU of Vitamin D – RCT Jan 2016

The effect of vitamin D supplementation on gestational diabetes in high-risk women: Results from a randomized placebo-controlled trial - 2016

J Res Med Sci. 2016 Jan 28;21:2. eCollection 2016.
Shahgheibi S1, Farhadifar F1, Pouya B1.
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

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Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnancy, leading to increase in the frequency of preeclampsia, cesarean delivery, neonatal bacterial vaginosis, and gestational diabetes. The current study was designed and implemented to investigate the effect of vitamin D during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy in reducing the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in women who are at high risk [history of GDM, birth macrosomia, family history, and high body mass index (BMI)].

In a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial, 90 pregnant women who had at least one risk factor for GDM were randomized into intervention (46 participants) and control (44 participants) groups. Participants in the intervention group took 5000 units of vitamin D daily and the control group took placebo until the 26th week of pregnancy. Then the glucose challenge test (GCT) and the glucose tolerance test (GTT) were performed to evaluate GDM.

Mean ± standard deviation (SD) age was 31.28 ± 6.38 years and 29 ± 6.24 years for the intervention group and the placebo group, respectively, (P > 0.05). In addition, there were no significant differences between two groups in terms of vitamin D levels and GCT (P > 0.05), and the difference was not significant. The incidence of diabetes in the intervention groups was statistically lower than in control group (11.4% vs 34.8; P < 0.01). The results showed that abnormal GCT in the placebo group was statistically higher than in intervention group (35.9% vs 10.9 P < 0.005).

The results of the current study showed that the prescription of vitamin D supplementation in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy was effective in reducing GDM and controlling GTT and GTC.

Gestational Diabetes treated by 50,000 IU of vitamin D every 2 weeks + daily probiotic - Nov 2018

The effects of vitamin D and probiotic co-supplementation on glucose homeostasis, inflammation, oxidative stress and pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Clinical Nutrition, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2018.10.028

Background and aims This study was designed to assess the effects of combined vitamin D and probiotic supplementation on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes (GDM).

Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in 87 women with GDM. Patients were randomly assigned three groups to receive either vitamin D (50,000 IU/every 2 weeks) plus probiotic (8×109 CFU/day) (n=30), probiotic (8×109 CFU/day) (n=29) or placebo (n=28) for 6 weeks.

Results: Vitamin D and probiotic co-supplementation significantly reduced

  • fasting plasma glucose (β -10.99 mg/dL; 95% CI, -14.26, -7.73; P<0.001),
  • serum insulin levels (β -1.95 μIU/mL; 95% CI, -3.05, -0.84; P=0.001) and
  • homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (β -0.76; 95% CI, -1.06, -0.45; P<0.001), and

significantly increased

  • the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (β 0.01; 95% CI, 0.008, 0.03; P=0.001) compared with the placebo.

In addition, vitamin D and probiotic co-supplementation resulted in a

  • significant reduction in triglycerides (β -37.56 mg/dL; 95% CI, -51.55, -23.56; P<0.001),
  • VLDL- (β -7.51 mg/dL; 95% CI, -10.31, -4.71; P<0.001),
  • HDL-/total cholesterol ratio (β -0.52; 95% CI, -0.79, -0.24; P<0.001),
  • high sensitivity C-reactive protein (β -1.80 mg/L; 95% CI, -2.53, -1.08; P<0.001) and
  • malondialdehyde (β -0.43 μmol/L; 95% CI, -0.77, -0.09; P=0.01);

also, a significant rise in

  • HDL-cholesterol (β 4.09 mg/dL; 95% CI, 1.11, 7.08; P=0.008) and
  • total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels (β 97.77 mmol/L; 95% CI, 52.34, 143.19; P<0.001) were observed compared with the placebo.

Vitamin D and probiotic co-supplementation did not change other metabolic parameters.
Vitamin D and probiotic co-supplementation significantly decreased triglycerides (P=0.02), VLDL-cholesterol (P=0.02) and hs-CRP (P=0.01), and significantly increased TAC (P=0.006) and total glutathione levels (P=0.04) compared with only probiotic group.

Conclusions: In conclusion, vitamin D and probiotic co-supplementation in women with GDM had beneficial effects on metabolic status.

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