Int J Clin Exp Med 2015;8(9):16280-16286 www.iicem.com /ISSN:1940-5901/IJCEM0011546
Murat Bakacak1, Salih Serin1, Onder Ercan1, Bulent Kostu1, Fazil Avci1, Metin Kiling2, Hakan Kiran1, Gurkan Kiran1
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey; 2Department of Biochemistry,School of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey
Received June 17, 2015; Accepted August 5, 2015; Epub September 15, 2015; Published September 30, 2015
The aim of this study is to assess vitamin D levels in eclampsia, preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women and the role of vitamin D deficiency in the etiology of preeclampsia (PE). Forty healthy pregnant women, 83 preeclamptic and 32 eclamptic pregnant women were included. Maternal and infant medical records were reviewed. Blood samples were obtained from all groups. Demographics and serum vitamin D levels were compared between the groups. No statistical differences were observed in age, gravidity, parity, weight, height and BMI between the three groups.
Week of pregnancy and weight at birth in eclamptic and preeclamptic patients were lower compared to the healthy patients (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively).
Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in eclamptic (P<0.001) and preeclamptic patients (P<0.001) compared to the healthy pregnant group.
The rate of cesarean section was found to be higher in preeclamptic and eclamptic patients (P<0.001).
Vitamin D levels were lower in both preeclamptic and eclamptic patients compared to healthy normotensive pregnant women (P<0.001).
Preeclamptic and eclamptic women were similar in terms of the data compared. Vitamin D supplementation is considered to decrease the risk of both preeclampsia and eclampsia in the patient population at risk for vitamin D deficiency.
- Preeclampsia 415 items in VitaminDWiki as of Oct 2015
Pages listed in BOTH the categories Pregnancy and Hypertension (preeclampsia)
- Preeclampsia (low vitamin D) doubles the risk of later cardiovascular problems – Sept 2019
- Preeclampsia 11X more likely if poor Vitamin D Binding Protein (South Africa) - Sept 2019
- Preeclampsia 2X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – April 2019
- Preeclampsia reduced 1.7 X by aspirin (but reduced 7 X by Vitamin D) – Feb 2018
- Preeclampsia risk reduced 7X by 4,000 IU of Vitamin D daily – RCT March 2018
- Preeclampsia of offspring cut in half if mother who smoked had vitamin D fortified margarine – Dec 2017
- Preeclampsia reduced 2X by Vitamin D, by 5X if also add Calcium – meta-analysis Oct 2017
- Child 49 percent higher risk of being overweight if hypertension during pregnancy – Sept 2017
- Preeclampsia risk reduced 60 percent if supplement with Vitamin D (they ignored dose size) – meta-analysis Sept 2017
- Preeclampsia recurrence reduced 2 X by 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks – RCT July 2017
- Preeclampsia is not reduced by vitamin D (if you ignore vitamin D level, dose size, frequency and duration) – July 2017
- Preeclampsia doubles the risk of mild cognitive impairment – July 2017
- No Hypertension during pregnancy if more than 60 ng of vitamin D – RCT
- Preeclampsia changes to Vitamin D Binding Protein reduces Vitamin D in placenta – Dec 2016
- Preeclampsia risk reduced by higher levels of vitamin D (VDAART 4,400 IU) - RCT Nov 2016
- MAGNESIUM IN MAN - IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH AND DISEASE – review 2015
- Preeclampsia 4X less likely if vitamin D levels increased by 8 ng during pregnancy – March 2016
- Pre-eclampsia 2X more likely if low vitamin D, unless adjust for vitamin D factors (BMI, skin color) – Dec 2015
- Preeclampsia and eclampsia associated with lower vitamin D, etc. – Sept 2015
- Preeclampsia increased risk of Congenital Heart Defects by 60 percent (vitamin D not mentioned) Oct 2015
- Preeclampsia reduced by Vitamin D (50,000 IU bi-weekly) and Calcium – Oct 2015
- Burkas reduce vitamin D levels, which causes pregnancy problems – Oct 2015
- Preeclampsia – hypothesis as to why vitamin D helps – June 2015
- Preeclampsia inversely proportional to serum Magnesium – Oct 2014
- Hypertension in pregnancy (preeclampsia) more frequent in winter (low vitamin D) – Jan 2015
- Preeclampsia rate cut in half by high level of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2014
- Preeclampsia 40 percent less likely if mother had more than 20 ng of vitamin D – Jan 2014
- Preeclampsia 2.7X more frequent if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2013
- During pregnancy even 400 IU helps metabolic status – RCT July 2013
- 2X more preeclampsia when vitamin D less than 30 ng, etc. - meta-analysis March 2013
- 7X increase in early severe preeclampsia associated with low vitamin D – Aug 2012
- Preeclampsia 3X more likely if low vitamin D at 25th week – April 2012
- Low vitamin D results in severe preeclampsia and low birth weight – Mar 2011
- Women with low vitamin D 4X more likely to have preeclampsia in pregnancy – Nov 2010
- Seasonal variation in pregnancy hypertension is correlated with sunlight intensity -June 2010 no abstract