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Small for gestational age is 1.6 X more likely if mother was vitamin D deficient – meta-analysis Aug 2017

Association between maternal vitamin D deficiency and small for gestational age: evidence from a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

BMJ Open 2017;7:e016404 http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-016404
Yao Chen1, Beibei Zhu1,2, Xiaoyan Wu1,2, Si Li3, Fangbiao Tao1,2


Small for gestational age birth was 6.5X more likely if mother was vitamin D deficient – March 2015
Preterm birth rate reduced by vitamin D – 78 percent if non-white, 39 percent if white – July 2017
Poor motor development in infant was 40 percent more likely if low maternal vitamin D – July 2017
50,000 IU of vitamin D for 8 weeks of pregnancy raised most above 30 nanograms - RCT Jan 2017
Low Vitamin D results in adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes – Wagner meta-analysis March 2017
Preterm birth rate reduced by 43 percent with adequate Vitamin D supplementation – meta-analysis Feb 2017
Higher birth weight resulted in more fit adults (Vitamin D not mentioned) – Jan 2020

Pregnancy category starts with:

748 items in Pregnancy category

 - see also

Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D summary:

0. Chance of not conceiving3.4 times Observe
1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe
2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 timesRCT
3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT
4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe
5. Premature birth 2 times RCT
6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 timesObserve
     Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 timesRCT - Omega-3
7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT
8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis
9. Infant height, weight, head size
     within normal limits
10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT
11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention
12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 timesObserve
13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 timesRCT
14. Good motor skills @ age 31.4 times Observe
15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT
16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT

RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Forest plot - summarixes the differences between the studies


Objective To determine whether maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with small for gestational age (SGA).

Methods A comprehensive literature search of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Embase, and the Elsevier ScienceDirect library was conducted to identify relevant articles reporting prospective cohort studies in English, with the last report included published in February 2017. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the correlation in a random effects model.

Results A total of 13 cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis with a sample of 28 285 individuals from seven countries. The pooled overall OR for babies born SGA was 1.588 (95% CI 1.138 to 2.216; p<0.01) for women with vitamin D deficiency. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy varied from 13.2% to 77.3%. Subgroup analyses identified no significant differences in the association between vitamin D deficiency and SGA based on study quality, gestational week during which blood sampling was performed, cut-off vitamin D levels, sample size, adjustment for critical confounders and method for measuring vitamin D.

Conclusion This meta-analysis suggests that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of SGA.

Created by admin. Last Modification: Tuesday February 4, 2020 18:32:24 GMT-0000 by admin. (Version 7)

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
8359 SGA forest.jpg admin 28 Aug, 2017 12:08 52.86 Kb 313
8358 SGA meta-analysis.pdf PDF 2017 admin 28 Aug, 2017 12:07 869.33 Kb 280
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