Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation for Prevention of Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.
Nutrients. 2017 Oct 18;9(10). pii: E1141. doi: 10.3390/nu9101141.
Khaing W1,2, Vallibhakara SA3, Tantrakul V4, Vallibhakara O5, Rattanasiri S6, McEvoy M7, Attia J8, Thakkinstian A9
As with virtually all other meta-analyses, the dose sizes were ignored.
Vitamin D charts from GrassrootsHealth - May 2016 has the following chart
Pages listed in BOTH the categories Pregnancy and Hypertension (preeclampsia)
- Preeclampsia (hypertension while pregnant) varies with season (O.R. 0.57) – June 2021
- Preeclampsia (low vitamin D) doubles the risk of later cardiovascular problems – Sept 2019
- Preeclampsia 11X more likely if poor Vitamin D Binding Protein (South Africa) - Sept 2019
- Preeclampsia 2X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – April 2019
- Preeclampsia reduced 1.7 X by aspirin (but reduced 7 X by Vitamin D) – Feb 2018
- Preeclampsia risk reduced 7X by 4,000 IU of Vitamin D daily – RCT March 2018
- Preeclampsia of offspring cut in half if mother who smoked had vitamin D fortified margarine – Dec 2017
- Preeclampsia reduced 2X by Vitamin D, by 5X if also add Calcium – meta-analysis Oct 2017
- Child 49 percent higher risk of being overweight if preeclampsia during pregnancy – Sept 2017
- Preeclampsia risk reduced 60 percent if supplement with Vitamin D (they ignored dose size) – meta-analysis Sept 2017
- Preeclampsia recurrence reduced 2 X by 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks – RCT July 2017
- Preeclampsia is not reduced by vitamin D (if you ignore vitamin D level, dose size, frequency and duration) – July 2017
- Preeclampsia doubles the risk of mild cognitive impairment – July 2017
- No Preeclampsia during pregnancy if more than 60 ng of vitamin D – RCT July 2013
- Preeclampsia changes to Vitamin D Binding Protein reduces Vitamin D in placenta – Dec 2016
- Preeclampsia risk reduced by higher levels of vitamin D (VDAART 4,400 IU) - RCT Nov 2016
- MAGNESIUM IN MAN - IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH AND DISEASE – review 2015
- Preeclampsia 4X less likely if vitamin D levels increased by 8 ng during pregnancy – March 2016
- Preeclampsia 2X more likely if low vitamin D, unless adjust for vitamin D factors (BMI, skin color) – Dec 2015
- Preeclampsia and eclampsia associated with lower vitamin D, etc. – Sept 2015
- Preeclampsia increased risk of Congenital Heart Defects by 60 percent (vitamin D not mentioned) Oct 2015
- Preeclampsia reduced by Vitamin D (50,000 IU bi-weekly) and Calcium – Oct 2015
- Burka clothing reduces vitamin D levels, which causes pregnancy problems – Oct 2015
- Preeclampsia – hypothesis as to why vitamin D helps – June 2015
- Preeclampsia inversely proportional to serum Magnesium – Oct 2014
- Hypertension in pregnancy (preeclampsia) more frequent in winter (low vitamin D) – Jan 2015
- Preeclampsia rate cut in half by high level of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2014
- Preeclampsia 40 percent less likely if mother had more than 20 ng of vitamin D – Jan 2014
- Preeclampsia 2.7X more frequent if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2013
- During pregnancy even 400 IU helps metabolic status – RCT July 2013
- 2X more preeclampsia when vitamin D less than 30 ng, etc. - meta-analysis March 2013
- 7X increase in early severe preeclampsia associated with low vitamin D – Aug 2012
- Preeclampsia 3X more likely if low vitamin D at 25th week – April 2012
- Low vitamin D results in severe preeclampsia and low birth weight – Mar 2011
- Women with low vitamin D 4X more likely to have preeclampsia in pregnancy – Nov 2010
- Seasonal variation in pregnancy hypertension is correlated with sunlight intensity - June 2010
Vitamin D supplementation effects with or without calcium in pregnancy for reducing risk of preeclampsia and gestational or pregnancy induced hypertension are controversial. Literature was systematically searched in Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from inception to July 2017. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in English were selected if they had any pair of interventions (calcium, vitamin D, both, or placebo). Systematic review with two-step network-meta-analysis was used to indirectly estimate supplementary effects.
Twenty-seven RCTs with 28,000 women were eligible. A direct meta-analysis suggested that calcium, vitamin D, and calcium plus vitamin D could lower risk of preeclampsia when compared to placebo with the pooled risk ratios (RRs) of 0.54 (0.41, 0.70), 0.47 (0.24, 0.89) and 0.50 (0.32, 0.78), respectively.
Results of network meta-analysis were similar with the corresponding RRs of 0.49 (0.35, 0.69), 0.43 (0.17, 1.11), and 0.57 (0.30, 1.10), respectively. None of the controls were significant. Efficacy of supplementation, which was ranked by surface under cumulative ranking probabilities, were: vitamin D (47.4%), calcium (31.6%) and calcium plus vitamin D (19.6%), respectively. Calcium supplementation may be used for prevention for preeclampsia. Vitamin D might also worked well but further large scale RCTs are warranted to confirm our findings.
PMID: 29057843 DOI: 10.3390/nu9101141