Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation in pregnancy on risk of pre-eclampsia - Randomized controlled trial.
Clin Nutr. 2018 Mar 2. pii: S0261-5614(18)30088-8. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.02.023. [Epub ahead of print]
- Preeclampsia risk reduced by higher levels of vitamin D (VDAART 4,400 IU) - RCT Nov 2016 has the following chat
- Preeclampsia (hypertension while pregnant) varies with season (O.R. 0.57) – June 2021
- Preeclampsia (low vitamin D) doubles the risk of later cardiovascular problems – Sept 2019
- Preeclampsia 11X more likely if poor Vitamin D Binding Protein (South Africa) - Sept 2019
- Preeclampsia 2X more likely if poor Vitamin D Receptor – April 2019
- Preeclampsia reduced 1.7 X by aspirin (but reduced 7 X by Vitamin D) – Feb 2018
- Preeclampsia risk reduced 7X by 4,000 IU of Vitamin D daily – RCT March 2018
- Preeclampsia of offspring cut in half if mother who smoked had vitamin D fortified margarine – Dec 2017
- Preeclampsia reduced 2X by Vitamin D, by 5X if also add Calcium – meta-analysis Oct 2017
- Child 49 percent higher risk of being overweight if preeclampsia during pregnancy – Sept 2017
- Preeclampsia risk reduced 60 percent if supplement with Vitamin D (they ignored dose size) – meta-analysis Sept 2017
- Preeclampsia recurrence reduced 2 X by 50,000 IU of vitamin D every two weeks – RCT July 2017
- Preeclampsia is not reduced by vitamin D (if you ignore vitamin D level, dose size, frequency and duration) – July 2017
- Preeclampsia doubles the risk of mild cognitive impairment – July 2017
- No Preeclampsia during pregnancy if more than 60 ng of vitamin D – RCT July 2013
- Preeclampsia changes to Vitamin D Binding Protein reduces Vitamin D in placenta – Dec 2016
- Preeclampsia risk reduced by higher levels of vitamin D (VDAART 4,400 IU) - RCT Nov 2016
- MAGNESIUM IN MAN - IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH AND DISEASE – review 2015
- Preeclampsia 4X less likely if vitamin D levels increased by 8 ng during pregnancy – March 2016
- Preeclampsia 2X more likely if low vitamin D, unless adjust for vitamin D factors (BMI, skin color) – Dec 2015
- Preeclampsia and eclampsia associated with lower vitamin D, etc. – Sept 2015
- Preeclampsia increased risk of Congenital Heart Defects by 60 percent (vitamin D not mentioned) Oct 2015
- Preeclampsia reduced by Vitamin D (50,000 IU bi-weekly) and Calcium – Oct 2015
- Burkas reduce vitamin D levels, which causes pregnancy problems – Oct 2015
- Preeclampsia – hypothesis as to why vitamin D helps – June 2015
- Preeclampsia inversely proportional to serum Magnesium – Oct 2014
- Hypertension in pregnancy (preeclampsia) more frequent in winter (low vitamin D) – Jan 2015
- Preeclampsia rate cut in half by high level of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2014
- Preeclampsia 40 percent less likely if mother had more than 20 ng of vitamin D – Jan 2014
- Preeclampsia 2.7X more frequent if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2013
- During pregnancy even 400 IU helps metabolic status – RCT July 2013
- 2X more preeclampsia when vitamin D less than 30 ng, etc. - meta-analysis March 2013
- 7X increase in early severe preeclampsia associated with low vitamin D – Aug 2012
- Preeclampsia 3X more likely if low vitamin D at 25th week – April 2012
- Low vitamin D results in severe preeclampsia and low birth weight – Mar 2011
- Women with low vitamin D 4X more likely to have preeclampsia in pregnancy – Nov 2010
- Seasonal variation in pregnancy hypertension is correlated with sunlight intensity - June 2010
Ali AM1, Alobaid A1, Malhis TN1, Khattab AF2.
1 Women Specialized Hospital, King Fahad Medical City, P.O. Box 59046, Riyadh, 11525, Saudi Arabia.
2 Women Specialized Hospital, King Fahad Medical City, P.O. Box 59046, Riyadh, 11525, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: akhattab at kfmc.med.sa.
Vitamin D plays pivotal role in decidualization and implantation of the placenta. Recent researches have shown that low level of vitamin D3 "25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D)" in serum is a risk factor for pre-eclampsia. Latest evidence supports role of vitamin D3 deficiency treatment in reducing the risk of pre-eclampsia. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of antenatal supplementation of vitamin D3 on the risk of pre-eclampsia and to explore the dose effect in attaining the vitamin D3 normal level.
An open labelled randomized controlled study was conducted on 179 pregnant women presenting in King Fahad Medical City antenatal clinic from Oct 2012-Oct 2015. Patients with age less than 20 years or more than 40 years, pregnancy with fetal anomalies, history of hypertension, pre-eclampsia, recurrent miscarriage, chronic renal or hepatic disease and malignancy were excluded from the study. Serum 25[OH]D was analysed during the first trimester (between 6 and 12 weeks of pregnancy). Patients with vitamin D3 deficiency (serum levels <25 nmol/L) were included in the study and randomized for vitamin D3 supplementation 400 IU (Group 1) versus 4000 IU (Group 2). Both groups were compared for the prevalence of pre-eclampsia and dose effect on vitamin D level.
Of 179 gravidae enrolled, 164 completed the trial. Mean maternal 25[OH]D was significantly increased in group 2 from 16.3 ± 5 nmol/mL to 72.3 ± 30.9 nmol/mL compared with group 1 from 17.5 ± 6.7 nmol/mL to 35.3 ± 20.7 nmol/mL (p > 0.0001). The relative risk reduction (RRR) for attaining ≥75 nmol/L before delivery was significantly higher (RRR 93.2 [CI 79-98] when treated with 4000 IU. The total incidence of pre-eclampsia in the study population was 4.3%. In comparison to group 1, the group 2 reported fewer pre-eclampsia events during the study period (8.6% versus 1.2%; p < 0.05). The total number of IUGRs was lesser in the group 2 (9.6%) versus group 1 (22.2%); p = 0.027. However, other obstetric outcomes were comparable between both groups.
Vitamin D supplementation in the deficient group reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia and IUGR in a dose dependant manner. However larger clinical trials are essential to investigate optimum dosage of vitamin D3 in this group.
PMID: 29550150 DOI: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.02.023