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Preeclampsia risk reduced 7X by 4,000 IU of Vitamin D daily – RCT March 2018

Effect of vitamin D3 supplementation in pregnancy on risk of pre-eclampsia - Randomized controlled trial.

Clin Nutr. 2018 Mar 2. pii: S0261-5614(18)30088-8. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.02.023. [Epub ahead of print]


Pages listed in BOTH the categories Pregnancy and Hypertension (proxie for preeclampsia)

See also VitaminDWiki

Ali AM1, Alobaid A1, Malhis TN1, Khattab AF2.
1 Women Specialized Hospital, King Fahad Medical City, P.O. Box 59046, Riyadh, 11525, Saudi Arabia.
2 Women Specialized Hospital, King Fahad Medical City, P.O. Box 59046, Riyadh, 11525, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: akhattab at kfmc.med.sa.

Vitamin D plays pivotal role in decidualization and implantation of the placenta. Recent researches have shown that low level of vitamin D3 "25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D)" in serum is a risk factor for pre-eclampsia. Latest evidence supports role of vitamin D3 deficiency treatment in reducing the risk of pre-eclampsia. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of antenatal supplementation of vitamin D3 on the risk of pre-eclampsia and to explore the dose effect in attaining the vitamin D3 normal level.

An open labelled randomized controlled study was conducted on 179 pregnant women presenting in King Fahad Medical City antenatal clinic from Oct 2012-Oct 2015. Patients with age less than 20 years or more than 40 years, pregnancy with fetal anomalies, history of hypertension, pre-eclampsia, recurrent miscarriage, chronic renal or hepatic disease and malignancy were excluded from the study. Serum 25[OH]D was analysed during the first trimester (between 6 and 12 weeks of pregnancy). Patients with vitamin D3 deficiency (serum levels <25 nmol/L) were included in the study and randomized for vitamin D3 supplementation 400 IU (Group 1) versus 4000 IU (Group 2). Both groups were compared for the prevalence of pre-eclampsia and dose effect on vitamin D level.

Of 179 gravidae enrolled, 164 completed the trial. Mean maternal 25[OH]D was significantly increased in group 2 from 16.3 ± 5 nmol/mL to 72.3 ± 30.9 nmol/mL compared with group 1 from 17.5 ± 6.7 nmol/mL to 35.3 ± 20.7 nmol/mL (p > 0.0001). The relative risk reduction (RRR) for attaining ≥75 nmol/L before delivery was significantly higher (RRR 93.2 [CI 79-98] when treated with 4000 IU. The total incidence of pre-eclampsia in the study population was 4.3%. In comparison to group 1, the group 2 reported fewer pre-eclampsia events during the study period (8.6% versus 1.2%; p < 0.05). The total number of IUGRs was lesser in the group 2 (9.6%) versus group 1 (22.2%); p = 0.027. However, other obstetric outcomes were comparable between both groups.

Vitamin D supplementation in the deficient group reduces the risk of pre-eclampsia and IUGR in a dose dependant manner. However larger clinical trials are essential to investigate optimum dosage of vitamin D3 in this group.