Maternal Vitamin D Status and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013 Jan 13.
Wei SQ, Qi HP, Luo ZC, Fraser WD.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Saint-Justine Hospital, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada;
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the associations between maternal vitamin D status and adverse pregnancy outcomes.
STUDY DESIGN: We searched electronic databases of the human literature in PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library up to October, 2012 using the following keywords: 'vitamin D' and 'status' or 'deficiency' or 'insufficiency' and 'pregnancy'. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted on observational studies that reported the association between maternal blood vitamin D levels and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth or small-for-gestational age.
RESULTS: Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Women with circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level less than 50 nmol/l in pregnancy experienced an increased risk of
- preeclampsia [OR 2.09 (95%CI 1.50 -2.90)],
- gestational diabetes mellitus [OR 1.38 (1.12-1.70)],
- preterm birth [OR 1.58 (1.08-2.31)] and
- small-for-gestational age [OR 1.52 (1.08-2.15)].
CONCLUSION: Low maternal vitamin D levels in pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth and small-for-gestational age.
See also VitaminDWiki
- Variety of pregnancy problems with low vitamin D – systematic review Sept 2012
- Pregnancy and vitamin D meta-analysis – July 2012
- Low vitamin D increased probability of low birth weight by 60 percent – meta-analysis June 2012
- Pregnancy complications reduced with 4000 IU of vitamin D - 2RCT Jan 2013
- 2X more preeclampsia when vitamin D less than 30 ng, etc. - meta-analysis March 2013