The new pooled analysis showed the effect of vitamin D is larger with the same direction for
- circulating 25-OHD (mean difference [MD], 70.69 vs. 66.46 nmol/L),
- preeclampsia (relative risk [RR], 0.89 vs. 0.88),
- gestational diabetes (RR, 1.08 vs. 1.05),
- low birth weight (RR, 0.84 vs. 0.72),
- preterm birth (RR, 1.30 vs. 1.26),
- birth weight (MD,108.62 vs. 107.60 g), and
- birth length (MD, 0.79 vs. 0.30 cm).
The new pooled analysis shows that the effect of vitamin D is smaller with the same direction for small for gestation age (RR, 0.69 vs. 0.78).
Download the Erratum from VitaminDWiki
Strangely this erratum is not mentioned at the web site for the original publication
Effect of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Fertility and Sterility, Received: October 19, 2014; Received in revised form: February 11, 2015; Accepted: February 12, 2015; Published Online: March 24, 2015, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.02.019
Faustino R. Pérez-López, M.D., Ph.D. faustino.perez at unizar.es, Vinay Pasupuleti, M.D., Ph.D., Edward Mezones-Holguin, M.D., Vicente A. Benites-Zapata, M.D., Priyaleela Thota, M.D., Abhishek Deshpande, M.D., Ph.D., Adrian V. Hernandez, M.D., Ph.D.
Many of the RCT studied used very small doses of D3 or used D2 - so could not be expected to get high enough levels to make a difference. See BOLDED references for details
Virtually no Meta-analysis considers dose size
VitaminDWiki articles in Pregnancy AND Meta-analysis:
- Gestational diabetes risk reduced 1.5X by Vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2021
- Gestational Diabetes – increased risk if poor Vitamin D Receptor – Meta-Analysis Jan 2021
- Small vitamin D doses given during pregnancy do not reduce childhood asthma – meta-analysis Dec 2020
- Multiple Sclerosis 40 percent more likely if mother had low vitamin D – meta-analysis Jan 2020
- Pregnancies helped by Vitamin D (insulin and birth weight in this case) – 28th meta-analysis Oct 2019
- Preeclampsia 2.7 X less likely if 50,000 IU of Vitamin D every 2 weeks – meta-analysis Sept 2019
- Autism risk increased 30 percent by Cesareans (both low vitamin D) – meta-analysis Sept 2019
- Vitamin D treats Gestational Diabetes, decreases hospitalization and newborn complications – meta-analysis March 2019
- Birth size and weight increased by Vitamin D – meta-analysis Feb 2019
- Pregnancies helped by Vitamin D in many ways – 27th meta-analysis Jan 2019
- Vitamin D supplementation reduced SGA, fetal mortality, infant mortality – JAMA Meta – May 2018
- Gestational Diabetes 39 percent more likely if insufficient Vitamin D – Meta-analysis March 2018
- Preeclampsia reduced 2X by Vitamin D, by 5X if also add Calcium – meta-analysis Oct 2017
- Preeclampsia risk reduced 60 percent if supplement with Vitamin D (they ignored dose size) – meta-analysis Sept 2017
- Small for gestational age is 1.6 X more likely if mother was vitamin D deficient – meta-analysis Aug 2017
- Miscarriage 2 times more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis May 2017
- Fewer than half of pregnancies will get even 20 ng of vitamin D with 800 IU daily dose – meta-analysis May 2017
- Low Vitamin D results in adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes – Wagner meta-analysis March 2017
- Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy increased prematurity risk by 60 percent - meta-analysis 1999
- Preterm birth rate reduced by 43 percent with adequate Vitamin D supplementation – meta-analysis Feb 2017
- Vitamin D during pregnancy reduces risk of childhood asthma by 13 percent – meta-analysis Dec 2016
- Vitamin D helps during pregnancy – meta-analysis Feb 2016
- Preterm birth 30 percent more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis May 2016
- Preterm birth extended by 2 weeks with Omega-3 – Meta-analysis Nov 2015
- Gestational Diabetes Mellitus 1.5X more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Oct 2015
- Infant wheezing 40 percent less likely if mother supplemented with vitamin D, vitamin E, or Zinc – meta-analysis Aug 2015
- Birth weight and length increased with high levels of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2015
- Pregnancy and Vitamin D – meta-analysis April 2015
- More vitamin D needed during pregnancy – meta-analysis Oct 2014
- Preeclampsia rate cut in half by high level of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2014
- Preeclampsia 2.7X more frequent if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2013
- 2X more preeclampsia when vitamin D less than 30 ng, etc. - meta-analysis March 2013
- 2X more likely to have preeclampsia if less than 20 ng of vitamin D – Meta-analysis Jan 2013
- Multiple Sclerosis 23 percent more likely if born in April vs. Oct – meta-analysis Nov 2012
- Pregnancy and vitamin D meta-analysis – July 2012
- Low vitamin D increased probability of low birth weight by 60 percent – meta-analysis June 2012
- Gestational diabetes 60 percent more likely below 20 ng of vitamin D – meta-analysis Feb 2012
- Premature or low birth weight resulted in children 3X more likely to be anxious – meta-analysis May 2011
- NutraIngredients April 2015 description of the study - with a nice summary chart
Objective: To assess the effects of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on obstetric outcomes and birth variables.
Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).
Setting; Not applicable.
Patient(s): Pregnant women and neonates.
Intervention(s): PubMed and 5 other research databases were searched through March 2014 for RCTs evaluating vitamin D supplementation ± calcium/vitamins/ferrous sulfate vs. a control (placebo or active) during pregnancy.
Main Outcome Measure(s): Measures were: circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight, preterm birth, birth weight, birth length, cesarean section. Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effects models were used, owing to expected scarcity of outcomes. Effects were reported as relative risks and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Result(s): Thirteen RCTs (n = 2,299) were selected. Circulating 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher at term, compared with the control group (mean difference: 66.5 nmol/L, 95% CI 66.2–66.7).
Birth weight and birth length were significantly greater for neonates in the vitamin D group; mean difference:
- 107.6 g (95% CI 59.9–155.3 g) and
- 0.3 cm (95% CI 0.10–0.41 cm), respectively.
- low birth weight,
- preterm birth, and
- cesarean section
were not influenced by vitamin D supplementation.
Across RCTs, the doses and types of vitamin D supplements, gestational age at first administration, and outcomes were heterogeneous.
Conclusion(s): Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy was associated with increased circulating 25(OH)D levels, birth weight, and birth length, and was not associated with other maternal and neonatal outcomes. Larger, better-designed RCTs evaluating clinically relevant outcomes are necessary to reach a definitive conclusion.
Note: the Authors of the RCT used by the meta-analysis are bolded by VitaminDWiki, along with details
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