Patterns of Smoking Behaviour in Low-Income Pregnant Women: A Cohort Study of Differential Effects on Infant Birth Weight.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Oct 29;13(11). pii: E1060.
Hayes C1, Kearney M2, O'Carroll H3, Zgaga L4, Geary M5, Kelleher C6.
Smoking While Pregnant
- Smoking increased 2.7X the probability of low vitamin D levels in pregnancy – Sept 2013
- Pregnant women were 2.6 times more likely to stop smoking when given financial rewards – RCT Jan 2015
- Smoking while pregnant lowers vitamin D and increases child asthma by 3.6 X – Aug 2011
- Smoking while pregnant: are the problems due to low vitamin D – July 2013
Miscarriage (associated with low vitamin D)
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) (associated with low vitamin D)
mental health problems for children: ADHD, autism (associated with low vitamin D)
premature birth, (associated with low vitamin D)
cleft lip or palate (excess vitamin A or lack of folic)
Maternal smoking accounts for 20%-30% of low birth weight (BW). Second-Hand Smoke (SHS) also negatively affects BW. This cohort study explored the differential effect of smoking patterns during pregnancy on infant BW. Smoking status for 652 self-reported smokers attending public ante-natal clinics was assessed at baseline (V1 first ante-natal visit), 28-32 weeks (V2) and one week after birth (V3). Multivariable generalised linear regression models tested smoking patterns (continuing to smoke, sustained quitting, partial quitting) on BW adjusting for household smoking and other co-variates.
Total quitting showed a median increase of 288 g in BW (95% CI (confidence intervals): 153.1-423 g, p < 0.001), compared to partial quitting (147 g, (95% CI: 50-244 g), p < 0.003). In partial quitters, increased BW was observed only in females 218 g, (95% CI: 81-355 g), p = 0.002). Household SHS showed a specific negative influence on pre-term but not term BW. This study suggests that, for low-income women, quitting or partial quitting during pregnancy both have a positive influence on infant BW. Whether others in the household smoke is also important.
PMID: 27801861 PMCID: PMC5129270 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph13111060