Nutrition Reviews, nuab114, https://doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuab114
Michele S Lima, Marcos Pereira, Caroline T Castro, Djanilson B Santos
Epidemiological studies suggest an association between vitamin D deficiency and anemia. Evidence of this relationship in pregnant women, however, is scarce.
The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the association between vitamin D deficiency and gestational anemia through observational studies.
The PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Embase, and Virtual Health Library databases were searched from inception to April 2021.
Original articles reporting observational studies that investigated the association between vitamin D deficiency and gestational anemia were included. Articles that did not have an abstract, as well as reviews articles, experimental studies, and editorials, were excluded. Two reviewers independently performed study selection, data extraction, and assessment of study quality. Disagreements between the reviewers were resolved by a third reviewer.
Study quality was assessed by 2 scales. Data were extracted from eligible studies and arranged in a 2 × 2 table. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the risk of the outcome were estimated using a fixed-effect model.
In total, 985 studies were retrieved, of which 17 were included in the systematic review:
- 11 cohort studies,
- 3 case‐control studies, and
- 3 cross-sectional studies.
For the meta-analysis, 8 studies with a total of 6530 women were included. There was a 61% increase in the odds of anemia in pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency (OR = 1.61; 95%CI, 1.41–1.83; I2 = 48%).
Vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for anemia in pregnant women.
Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO registration no. CRD42020182697.
VitaminDWiki - Overview Iron Supplements and Vitamin Danemia health problems
Diseases associated with
|Low iron (menstruating)||High iron (males)|
|Anemia||Anemia of chronic disease|
|Inflammatory bowel disease||Atherosclerosis|
|Depression / anxiety||Grave's disease|
|Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder||Heart arrhythmia|
|Neurodegenerative conditions||Sideroblastic anemia|
|Celiac disease|| Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). |
Excess dietary fructose is a primary initiator of NAFLD,
but high iron is another culprit that triggers disease progression
|Restless leg syndrome||Liver damage and liver disease|
|Hair loss||Still's disease|
|Muscle weakness, decline in motor skills||Hemochromatosis|
|Mental changes and memory loss||Hemophagocytic syndrome|