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The lungs can activate vitamin D locally – a Vitamin D inhaler may help lungs – Aug 2016


Vitam Horm. 2011 ; 86: 217-237. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-386960-9.00009-5.
Sif Hansdottir, MD, MS and Martha M. Monick, Ph.D.
Dept of Medicine, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine and Veterans Administration Medical Center, Iowa City, IA 52242


I, Henry Lahore, have been using Vitamin D topically with great success for many years.
In general local application of Vitamin D appears to be at least 10 times better than if taken orally
Just a few weeks ago (Oct, 2016) I wondered if Vitamin D could be applied locally to the lungs
There are many low-cost ($10-30) nebulizers on Amazon which put a very fine mist with ultrasonics -115KHz) , 0.5 to 5 micrometer
New version in 2017 own 10 inhalers as of June 2019 them in 2018
It might be possible to just put some water-soluble vitamin D powder into water in an atomizer
A Vitamin D inhaler/atomizer/nebulizer might be very useful for some kinds of respiratory problems -such as
  Asthma, Pneumonia, Wheezing, COPD, Respiratory Tract Infections, respiratory allergies, second-hand smoke, . .
3 million molecules of Vitamin D per alveoli (500 million alveoli in lungs, 1.5 trillion molecules in 40 IU of Vit D)

Update Nov 2016: Inhaled Vitamin D water from purchased nebulizer - lungs feel much better in < 1/2 hour.
Dec 4: continuing to use it daily. Guess: I inhale 500 IU of vitamin D in 30 seconds
Powder of 50,000 IU Vitamin D capsule dissolved in 5 tablespoons of water
Pour off or filter the water thru a coffee filter so as to keep the cellulose from clogging the inhaler
Update 2018 - switched to using Vitamin D Emulsion
2 parts water to 1 part Vitamin D emulsion ==> inhaler
1 of the sources of Vitamin D emulsion Amazon
Update 2019: >10 companies making nebulizers and >10 companies making Vitamin D emulsions
Bought several more nebulizers on Amazon Aug 2020 1  2   3  4
Surface area of lungs + nose = 8X more than the small intestines

square meters
Respiratory 90
Nasal passages which include microvilli 160
Small Intestines - where oral Vitamin D is absorbed 30

See also VitaminDWiki

See also VitaminDWiki - activation outside of the lungs, liver-kidneys

Emulsions on VitaminDWiki

Breathing category starts with the following

446 items in Breathing category

Breathing-related Overviews at VitaminDWiki:
Allergy   Lung Cancer   TB   Asthma  Influenza  Colds and flu
Pneumonia   Respiratory infections   COPD   Air Polution   Smoking   Cystic Fibrosis

Vitamin D can be converted to an activated form in most cell tissues: no gut, liver, or kidney needed

in Visio for 2023
click on image for details

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Our understanding of vitamin D metabolism and biological effects has grown exponentially in recent years and it has become clear that vitamin D has extensive immunomodulatory effects.
The active vitamin D generating enzyme, 1a-hydroxylase, is expressed by the airway epithelium, alveolar macrophages, dendritic cells and lymphocytes indicating that active vitamin D can be produced locally within the lungs.
Vitamin D generated in tissues is responsible for many of the immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D.
The effects of vitamin D within the lungs include increased secretion of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin, decreased chemokine production, inhibition of dendritic cell activation and alteration of T cell activation. These cellular effects are important for host responses against infection and the development of allergic lung diseases like asthma. Epidemiological studies do suggest that vitamin D deficiency predisposes to viral respiratory tract infections and mycobacterial infections and that vitamin D may play a role in the development and treatment of asthma. Randomized, placebo controlled trials are lacking but ongoing.

Section from the PDF


Humans get vitamin D through synthesis in the skin following UVB exposure and to a lesser extent from limited dietary sources. Vitamin D from the skin or diet is metabolized primarily in the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D) (Ponchon, Kennan et al. 1969). 25Dis the “storage form” of vitamin D and is used to determine the vitamin D status of individuals.

The last and rate limiting step in the synthesis of “active” 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) is catalyzed by the mitochondrial enzyme 1a-hydroxylase and is conventionally known to take place in the kidneys. Renal 1a-hydroxylase activity is under stringent regulation by parathyroid hormone, calcium, calcitonin, phosphorus and 1,25D itself (ZEHNDER, BLAND et al. 1999). Vitamin D is inactivated by the ubiquitous enzyme, 24- hydroxylase, whose expression is inducible by 1,25D, thus creating a negative feedback loop (Holick 2007). The biological effects of vitamin D are achieved through the regulation of gene expression mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR) (Baker, McDonnell et al. 1988). Active vitamin D binds to VDR and upon ligand binding, the receptor dimerizes with the retinoic X receptor (RXR) (MacDonald, Dowd et al. 1993). The VDR/RXR complex binds to vitamin D responsive elements (VDREs) within the promoter regions of vitamin D regulated genes (Sutton and MacDonald 2003).
It is increasingly recognized that localized synthesis of 1,25D rather than systemic production is responsible for many of the immune effects of vitamin D. Extra-renal expression of 1a-hydroxylase has been found in various cells of the immune system including alveolar macrophages (Adams, Sharma et al. 1983; Reichel, Koeffler et al. 1987), dendritic cells (Fritsche, Mondal et al. 2003; Hewison, Freeman et al. 2003; Sigmundsdottir, Pan et al. 2007) and lymphocytes (Chen, Sims et al. 2007; Sigmundsdottir, Pan et al. 2007) as well as in airway epithelia (Hansdottir, Monick et al. 2008) (Table 1). Locally formed 1,25D acts in an autocrine or paracrine fashion to modulate cell proliferation, cell differentiation and immune function (Bell 1998; Hewison, Burke et al. 2007; White 2008).

See also web

1α, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 counteracts the effects of cigarette smoke in airway epithelial cells
Cellular Immunology, doi:10.1016/j.cellimm.2015.03.004
Ruhui Zhanga, Haijin Zhaoa, Hangming Donga, Fei Zoub, Shaoxi Caia, ,
a Department of Respiratory, Chronic Airways Diseases Laboratory, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China
b School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China

Cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) alter calpain-1 expression via ERK signaling pathway in bronchial epithelial cells. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) inhibits cigarette smoke-induced epithelial barrier disruption.

This study was aimed to explore whether the 1,25D3 counteracted the CSE effects in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE). In particular, transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and permeability, expression and distribution of E-cadherin and β-catenin, calpain-1 expression, and ERK phosphorylation were assessed in the CSE-stimulated 16HBE cells. The CSE induced the ERK phosphorylation, improved the calpain-1 expression, increased the distribution anomalies and the cleaving of E-cadherin and β-catenin, and resulted in the TER reduction and the permeability increase. The 1,25D3 reduced these pathological changes. The 1,25D3 mediated effects were associated with a reduced ERK phosphorylation.

In conclusion, the present study provides compelling evidences that the 1,25D3 may be considered a possible valid therapeutic option in controlling the cigarette smoke-induced epithelial barrier disruption.

PDF is available free at Sci-Hub   10.1016/j.cellimm.2015.03.004

Intranasal emulsions (Vitamin D in the future?)

  • in VitaminDWiki Nasal Vitamin B12 treatment for children (perhaps nasal Vitamin D too) – Nov 2019
  • C. V. Pardeshi and V. S. Belgamwar, “Direct nose to brain drug delivery via integrated nerve pathways bypassing the blood-brain barrier: An excellent platform for brain targeting,” Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 957–972, 2013.
  • W.-Y. Ong, S.-M. Shalini, and L. Costantino, “Nose-to-brain drug delivery by nanoparticles in the treatment of neurological disorders,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 21, no. 37, pp. 4247–4256, 2014.
  • L. Illum, “Nasal drug delivery—possibilities, problems and solutions,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 87, no. 1-3, pp. 187–198, 2003.
  • P. Khadka, J. Ro, H. Kim et al., “Pharmaceutical particle technologies: an approach to improve drug solubility, dissolution and bioavailability,” Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 304–316, 2014.
  • V. Puri, “A study on nano emulsion (Emulgel),” International Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 27–55, 2018

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The lungs can activate vitamin D locally – a Vitamin D inhaler may help lungs – Aug 2016        
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