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Pregnancy and Vitamin D – meta-analysis April 2015

ENDOCRINOLOGY IN PREGNANCY: Influence of maternal vitamin D status on obstetric outcomes and the foetal skeleton

Eur J Endocrinol April 10, 2015 EJE-14-0826
Rebecca Moon, Nicholas Harvey and Cyrus Cooper cc at mrc.soton.ac.uk
R Moon, MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, SOUTHAMPTON, United Kingdom
N Harvey, MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, SOUTHAMPTON, United Kingdom
C Cooper, MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, SOUTHAMPTON, United Kingdom

See also VitaminDWiki
Pregnancy category listing has 878 items along with related searches

Overview Pregnancy and vitamin D has the following summary

IU Cumulative Benefit Blood level CofactorsCalcium $*/month
200 Better bones for mom
with 600 mg of Calcium
6 ng/ml increase Not needed No effect $0.10
400 Less Rickets (but not zero with 400 IU)
3X less adolescent Schizophrenia
Fewer child seizures
20-30 ng/ml Not needed No effect $0.20
2000 2X More likely to get pregnant naturally/IVF
2X Fewer dental problems with pregnancy
8X less diabetes
4X fewer C-sections (>37 ng)
4X less preeclampsia (40 ng vs 10 ng)
5X less child asthma
2X fewer language problems age 5
42 ng/ml Desirable < 750 mg $1
4000 2X fewer pregnancy complications
2X fewer pre-term births
49 ng/ml Should have
< 750 mg $3
6000 Probable: larger benefits for above items
Just enough D for breastfed infant
More maternal and infant weight
Should have
< 750 mg $4

The articles in Pregnancy AND Meta-analysis are here:

Vitamin D status is increasingly associated with wide ranging clinical outcomes. There is now a wealth of observational studies reporting on its associations with obstetric complications, including preeclampsia, gestational diabetes and mode and timing of delivery. The findings are inconsistent and currently there is a lack of data from high quality intervention studies to confirm a causal role for vitamin D in these outcomes. This is similarly true with regards to fetal development, including measures of fetal size and skeletal mineralisation.

Overall, there is an indication of possible benefits of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy for

  • offspring birthweight,
  • calcium concentrations and bone mass, and for
  • reduced maternal pre-eclampsia.

However, for none of these outcomes is the current evidence base conclusive, and the available data justify the instatement of high-quality randomised placebo controlled trials in a range of populations and health care settings to establish potential efficacy and safety of vitamin D supplementation to improve particular outcomes.

Received 1 October 2014, Accepted Preprint first posted online on 10 April 2015
 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

Figure 1: Forest plot of the association between maternal vitamin D status and risk of preeclampsia (observational studies)


Figure 2: Meta-analysis of maternal serum 25(OH)D in pregnancy and gestational diabetes.


Table 1: Meta-analyses of maternal vitamin D status (intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level) and risk of pre-eclampsia


Table 2: Intervention studies of vitamin D supplementation (alone, and in combination with calcium supplementation) in pregnancy to reduce obstetric complications


Table 3



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