J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016 Feb 11. pii: S0960-0760(16)30025-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2016.02.008. [Epub ahead of print]
Palacios C1, De-Regil LM2, Lombardo LK3, Peña-Rosas JP4.
1Nutrition Program, Department of Human Development, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, Puerto Rico. cristina.palacios at upr.edu.
2Research and Evaluation, Micronutrient Initiative, Ottawa, Canada.
3Department of Epidemiology and Infectious diseases Research, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI, USA.
4Evidence and Programme Guidance, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent during pregnancy. It has been suggested that vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy may reduce the risk of adverse gestational outcomes.
To update a previous meta-analysis on the effects of oral vitamin D supplementation (alone or in combination with other vitamins and minerals) during pregnancy on maternal 25(OH)D levels and risk of developing pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, preterm birth, impaired glucose tolerance, caesarean section, gestational hypertension and other adverse conditions.
We searched for randomized and quasi-randomized trials through the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations, and direct communications with relevant organizations. Assessments of inclusion criteria, extraction of data from included studies, and risk of bias' assessments of the included studies were done independently by two review authors.
We included 15 trials, excluded 27 trials and 23 trials are still ongoing/unpublished. Data from seven trials with 868 women suggest that pregnant women supplemented with vitamin D had significantly higher 25(OH)D levels compared to controls (mean difference: 54.7nmol/L; 95% CI 36.6, 72.9). Two trials found a lower risk of preeclampsia (8.9% versus 15.5%; average risk ratio 0.52; 95% CI 0.25, 1.05) and two other trials found no difference in the risk of gestational diabetes with vitamin D supplementation. Also, three trials found that supplementation with vitamin D plus calcium reduced the risk of pre-eclampsia (5% versus 9%; average risk ratio 0.51; 95% CI 0.32, 0.80).
Supplementing pregnant women with vitamin D led to significantly higher levels of 25(OH)D at term compared to placebo/control but results were inconsistent. Vitamin D supplementation, with or without calcium, may be related to lower risk of preeclampsia but more studies are needed to confirm this.
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
- This meta-analysis, like most, ignored HOW MUCH vitamin D was taken
- One of the authors is a member of the World Health Organization, which still amazingly recommends ZERO vitamin D during pregnancy
WHO still says mistakenly says NO vitamin D during pregnancy, and only 200 IU after
The Meta-analysis of Pregnancy and Vitamin D
- Gestational diabetes risk reduced 1.5X by Vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2021
- Gestational Diabetes – increased risk if poor Vitamin D Receptor – Meta-Analysis Jan 2021
- Small vitamin D doses given during pregnancy do not reduce childhood asthma – meta-analysis Dec 2020
- Multiple Sclerosis 40 percent more likely if mother had low vitamin D – meta-analysis Jan 2020
- Pregnancies helped by Vitamin D (insulin and birth weight in this case) – 28th meta-analysis Oct 2019
- Preeclampsia 2.7 X less likely if 50,000 IU of Vitamin D every 2 weeks – meta-analysis Sept 2019
- Autism risk increased 30 percent by Cesareans (both low vitamin D) – meta-analysis Sept 2019
- Vitamin D treats Gestational Diabetes, decreases hospitalization and newborn complications – meta-analysis March 2019
- Birth size and weight increased by Vitamin D – meta-analysis Feb 2019
- Pregnancies helped by Vitamin D in many ways – 27th meta-analysis Jan 2019
- Vitamin D supplementation reduced SGA, fetal mortality, infant mortality – JAMA Meta – May 2018
- Gestational Diabetes 39 percent more likely if insufficient Vitamin D – Meta-analysis March 2018
- Preeclampsia reduced 2X by Vitamin D, by 5X if also add Calcium – meta-analysis Oct 2017
- Preeclampsia risk reduced 60 percent if supplement with Vitamin D (they ignored dose size) – meta-analysis Sept 2017
- Small for gestational age is 1.6 X more likely if mother was vitamin D deficient – meta-analysis Aug 2017
- Miscarriage 2 times more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis May 2017
- Fewer than half of pregnancies will get even 20 ng of vitamin D with 800 IU daily dose – meta-analysis May 2017
- Low Vitamin D results in adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes – Wagner meta-analysis March 2017
- Bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy increased prematurity risk by 60 percent - meta-analysis 1999
- Preterm birth rate reduced by 43 percent with adequate Vitamin D supplementation – meta-analysis Feb 2017
- Vitamin D during pregnancy reduces risk of childhood asthma by 13 percent – meta-analysis Dec 2016
- Vitamin D helps during pregnancy – meta-analysis Feb 2016
- Preterm birth 30 percent more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis May 2016
- Preterm birth extended by 2 weeks with Omega-3 – Meta-analysis Nov 2015
- Gestational Diabetes Mellitus 1.5X more likely if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Oct 2015
- Infant wheezing 40 percent less likely if mother supplemented with vitamin D, vitamin E, or Zinc – meta-analysis Aug 2015
- Birth weight and length increased with high levels of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2015
- Pregnancy and Vitamin D – meta-analysis April 2015
- More vitamin D needed during pregnancy – meta-analysis Oct 2014
- Preeclampsia rate cut in half by high level of vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2014
- Preeclampsia 2.7X more frequent if low vitamin D – meta-analysis Sept 2013
- 2X more preeclampsia when vitamin D less than 30 ng, etc. - meta-analysis March 2013
- 2X more likely to have preeclampsia if less than 20 ng of vitamin D – Meta-analysis Jan 2013
- Multiple Sclerosis 23 percent more likely if born in April vs. Oct – meta-analysis Nov 2012
- Pregnancy and vitamin D meta-analysis – July 2012
- Low vitamin D increased probability of low birth weight by 60 percent – meta-analysis June 2012
- Gestational diabetes 60 percent more likely below 20 ng of vitamin D – meta-analysis Feb 2012
- Premature or low birth weight resulted in children 3X more likely to be anxious – meta-analysis May 2011