- Gestational Diabetes 1.39 X more likely if low Vitamin D Meta-analysis Feb 2017 free PDF online
- Jan 2016 meta-analysis found a very similar 1.45 X increase in GD with low vitamin D
- Gestational Diabetes 1.9 X more likely if low vitamin D – review Dec 2017
- Maternal and Neonatal Metabolic Outcomes of Vitamin D Supplementation in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Aug 2018 doi: 10.1159/00049164
Vitamin D Deficiency Increases the Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Nutrients 2015, 7(10), 8366-8375; doi:10.3390/nu7105398 (registering DOI)
Meng-Xi Zhang 1,†, Guo-Tao Pan 1,†, Jian-Fen Guo 1, Bing-Yan Li 2, Li-Qiang Qin 2 and Zeng-Li Zhang 1, zhangzengli at suda.edu.cn
1 Department of Labor Hygiene and Environmental Health, School of Public Health of Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China
2 Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China
† These authors contributed equally to this work.
The results investigating the relationship between vitamin D levels and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are inconsistent. Thus, we focused on evaluating the association of vitamin D deficiency with GDM by conducting a meta-analysis of observed studies. A systematic literature search was conducted via PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane library to identify eligible studies before August 2015.
The meta-analysis of 20 studies including 9209 participants showed that women with vitamin D deficiency experienced a significantly increased risk for developing GDM (odds ratio (OR) = 1.53; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.33, 1.75) with a little heterogeneity (I2 = 16.20%, p = 0.252). A noteworthy decrease of 4.93 nmol/L (95% CI, −6.73, −3.14) in serum 25(OH)D was demonstrated in the participants with GDM, and moderate heterogeneity was observed (I2 = 61.40%, p = 0.001). Subgroup analysis with study design showed that there were obvious heterogeneities in nested case–control studies (I2 > 52.5%, p < 0.07). Sensitivity analysis showed that exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the overall combined effect. In summary, the evidence from this meta-analysis indicates a consistent association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of GDM. However, well-designed randomized controlled trials are needed to elicit the clear effect of vitamin D supplementation on prevention of GDM.
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