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Gestational diabetes risk reduced 1.5X by Vitamin D – meta-analysis March 2021

There are 2 GDM meta-analyses on this page

Dietary supplementation for gestational diabetes prevention and management: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2021 Mar 21. doi: 10.1007/s00404-021-06023-9
Kwan Yi Chan 1, Martin Ming Him Wong 2, Sally Shuk Han Pang 3, Kenneth Ka Hei Lo 4


Diabetes and Pregnancy studies

Purpose: The use of supplement to prevent and ease gestational diabetes (GDM) progression has been examined in various studies, but the results were inconclusive, and studies evaluated dietary supplements separately. The present review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of various dietary supplementation on GDM risk and the surrogate markers for cardiometabolic risk of pregnant women with GDM.

Methods: A comprehensive search on multiple databases were performed to identify randomized controlled trials. Random-effects model was used to pool the results in relative risk (RR) or mean difference.

Results: Fifty-three randomized controlled studies with 9443 pregnant women were included. Vitamin D (5 studies, RR 0.64; 95% CI 0.44, 0.94) and myo-inositol (4 studies, RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.20, 0.58) supplementation significantly reduced the risk of GDM. Myo-inositol, probiotics, and vitamin D showed significant intervention effect on surrogate markers related to glycemic control, lipid profile, inflammatory, and oxidative stress. However, the majority of included studies were clustered to Iran and Italy, which might convey a generalizability bias.

Conclusion: Dietary supplementation including vitamin D and myoinositol supplementation has the potential in primary prevention and management of GDM, whereas probiotics demonstrated its ability in GDM management by improving the levels of surrogate markers for cardiometabolic risk. The potential for dietary supplement in preventing GDM or managing cardiometabolic risk of pregnant women should receive more attentions.

GDM 1.26X more likely if low vitamin D - Meta-analysis April 2021

Maternal vitamin D status and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
Clinical Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.03.037

No earlier systematic review and meta-analysis have been done on the association between maternal serum vitamin D status and risk of GDM among prospective studies. The current study was done to systematically review prospective cohort studies (with several years of follow-up) on the association between maternal serum vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency and risk of GDM.

Relevant papers published up to January 2020 were searched through PubMed, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and Google Scholar using suitable keywords. All prospective cohort studies reporting Hazard Ratios (HRs) or Relative Risks (RRs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for GDM across categories of maternal serum vitamin D status were included.

A total of 29 prospective and nested case-control studies were included in the current systematic review, of which 27 studies had sufficient data for the meta-analysis. Individuals with vitamin D deficiency had a 26% greater risk of developing GDM than those with normal serum vitamin D concentrations (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.41).
In addition, a significant positive association was seen between combined vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and risk of developing GDM (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.35). Dose-response analysis showed a significant U-shaped non-linear association between serum vitamin D concentrations and risk of developing GDM (P<0.001), such that those with serum vitamin D concentrations between 40 and 90 nmol/L had significantly reduced risk of GDM.

We found a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of GDM. The lowest risk of GDM was found among those with a serum vitamin D levels of 40-90 nmol/L. Further studies, including randomized clinical trials, are needed to confirm our findings.

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