- Human body needs Iron, especially the liver, which also processes Vitamin D
- Primary Iron sources: meat ,supplements, plants (if vitamin C also in the meal)
- Iron deficiency is very common around the world
especially. pregnant, dark skin, vegans, living in developing countries
- Low-cost Iron supplements cause mild nausea in some people
there are several high-cost Iron supplements which have much less nausea
- Iron and Vitamin D are synergistic
increasing one often increases the other
low levels of one associated with low levels of the other
the synergism occurs even without clinical deficiency of either one
- Women who are not menstruating (oral contraceptives or age) have more Iron and more vitamin D
- Iron is depleted by wide variety of drugs, Calcium, Magnesium, Coffee, Tea, etc.
- Vitamin D non-responding infants become responders after Iron supplementation
- This page was just a Hypothesis from Feb 2013 to June 2016
Heme iron polypeptide (HIP)
- is a form of hemi iron, like in hemoglobin, which is better tolerated than metallic iron
- far fewer side effects
- does not appear to be affected by calcium, coffee, or other foods, and can be taken with meals.
- Clinical studies of hip: An oral heme-iron product RCT 2010
- 3 hours after ingestion the Iron levels were 23X higher than for ferrous fumarate
- Suspect that the total bioavailablity over say one day is less than that
-  Download the PDF from Sci-hub via VitaminDWiki
- 63 studies referred to this study as of Sept 2021
- Drugs.com about HIP Iron medical concerns
- Medicne.net about HIP Iron medical concerns
- Heme or non-heme?An overview of iron supplements Drugstore News 3 page PDF
- Suppliers include
Proferrin 30 for $23 References
Proferrin 11mg Heme IronAmazon 30 for $30
Feosol Bifera HIP & PIC Amazon 90 for $50
Feosol Bifera Iron (half is HIP Amazon 60 for $29
See also VitaminDWiki
- Overview Iron Supplements and Vitamin D
- Overview Liver and vitamin D there are many Vitamin D options if the liver is not fully functioning
- Oral contraceptives may reduce or increase vitamin D probably due to less blood/iron loss when using the pill
- Vitamin D pages containing "anemia" in title 15 pages as of June 2021
- wiki page:
- Vitamin D, Zinc, Magnesium etc. are needed to fight COVID – April 2022
- Fraternal twin births increasing (twins often associated with low vitamin D) – March 2022
- Anemia 1.6 X more likely during pregnancy if low Vitamin D – meta-analysis Dec 2021
- Anemia is assocated with both very low and very high vitamin D (Mexican seniors) – Oct 2021
- Vitamin D levels over 150 nanograms associated with somewhat lower haemoglobin, etc (details behind paywall) – Nov 2021
- Early brain development helped by Iron, Iodine, Vitamin D, Omega-3. Zinc etc. – Oct 2021
- Paleo Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Iron, Zinc, Potassium, etc were much higher
- Vitamin D, C, A, and E, as well as Iron, Se, and Zinc each augment vaccine response – July 2021
- Pregnancy recommendations – huge differences in Vitamin D, Mg, iron, Iodine, DHA, etc – April 2021
- Some Religious dietary practices may result in low iron, B12, vitamin D, Zinc, etc.
- Vitamins and Metals needed by the Immune System – Jan 2020
- Depression treatments: diet, exercise, bright light, Vitamin D, B12, Omega-3, Zinc, Music, etc. – May 2019
- Restless Leg Syndrome linked to brain genes associated with Vitamin D and Iron – Nov 2019
- Iron increased slightly by small amount of Vitamin D for a short time – RCT Feb 2019
- Interaction of drugs with Vitamin D, Magnesium, Vitamin B12, Selenium, etc – Dec 2018
- Iron deficiency estimated by Smartphone photo - Nov 2018
- Vitamin D deficiency 2.5 X more likely in iron-deficient children – Dec 2018
- Red blood cell association with Vitamin D – April 2018
- Mineral adsorption and Vitamin D (Magnesium, Calcium, etc) - 2011
- Anemia in children 3.5 X more likely if low vitamin D – March 2018
- Autistic children have lower levels of Iron, Vitamin D, Magnesium, etc – Oct 2017
- Drugs which create deficiencies in Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Magnesium, Zinc, Iron, etc. – Sept 2017
- Iron in blood decreases with vitamin D in males, increases with premenopausal females (Korea)– May 2017
- The End of Alzheimer's - if custom adjust Vitamin D, B-12, Iron, Omega-3, etc.
- Anemia (in heart failure) not treated by Vitamin D (they should have added Iron) – RCT Aug 2017
- Micronutrients (such as Vitamin D) needed during pregnancy – May 2016
- So Tell Me . . . What Are You Doing to Prevent Breast Cancer - June 2017
- Italian consensus of recommended Vitamin D, Omega-3, etc – Oct 2016
- Breastfed infants 6 times more likely to deficient in Vitamin D and Iron – Aug 2015
- IBD deficiencies of Iron and Vitamin D (and new Iron types) – June 2016
- Iron supplementation with much less nausea (Polysaccharide and heme forms) – Jan 2016
- Dengue fever immune response and micronutrients (vitamins D, E, A, and Zinc, Iron, Chromium) – Nov 2015
- Children 7 times more likely to be vitamin D deficient if drink cows milk without vitamin D – April 2016
- Restless legs syndrome 3X more likely during pregnancy (low vitamin D) – Oct 2015
- Common deficiencies D3, Omega-3, K2, Mg, B12, E, A, Iodine, etc – Mercola Oct 2015
- Low vitamin D - anemia 2.2X more likely (no surprise) – meta-analysis Aug 2015
- Vitamin D Cofactors in a nutshell
- Vitamin D increases mineral availability which protect against toxic elements - July 2015
- Iron and Vitamin D deficiencies are synergistic - April 2015
- Inflammation Anemia in Blacks 8X more likely if less than 20 ng of vitamin D – April 2015
- Anemia in pregnant teens 7X more likely if low vitamin D – April 2015
- Low iron in teenage girls is 2X more likely if low vitamin D – 2014
- Deficiencies of Vitamin D, Iron, Magnesium, and Zinc all associated with ADHD – Sept 2014
- Restless Legs Syndrome dramatically reduced by vitamin D, etc
- Anemia 1.9X more likely in white children having lowish vitamin D – Jan 2014
- 2X increased chance of anemia (low iron) associated with low vitamin D – Sept 2013
- Review of Micronutrients such as vitamin D for women and childhood – Aug 2013
- Deficiencies of iron and vitamin D are interrelated in women – March 2013
- Infants who have iron deficiency anemia are 4X more likely to be vitamin D deficient – March 2013
- Anemia perhaps results in low vitamin D for premenosausal women – March 2013
- 2X increase in metastatic breast cancer in young women since 1976 – Feb 2013
- Hair loss in women associated with low levels of both iron and vitamin D2 – Feb 2013
- Overview Iron Supplements and Vitamin D
- Hypothesis: Premenopausal Iron deficiency causes increased recurrence of breast cancer – 2008
- World map of Iron Deficiency
- Ballet dancers in the winter had more injuries and only 15 ng of vitamin D – Feb 2013
- Iron deficiency is a cause of Vitamin D deficiency
- 5X more likely to be vitamin D deficient if anemic - Dec 2012
- Female Athlete health problems may be due to lack of vitamin D and Iron – July 2012
- Oral contraceptives may reduce or increase vitamin D
- Why do Saudi postmenopausal women have higher level of vitamin D – Mar 2011
- Anemia associated with lower than 20 ng vitamin D among elderly – Jan 2011
- Low cost cofactors for vitamin D
See also web
- Vitamin D requires iron aid, and both are often lacking Nutrition ATC May 2012
Conversion of vitamin D in the liver is reduced if there is not enough Iron
iron is the most commonly deficient nutrient around the world, including the United States
- Micronutrient deficiencies World Health Organization
Iron deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world.
Iodine deficiency is the world’s most prevalent, yet easily preventable, cause of brain damage.
- Effect of iron on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations.
Am J Clin Nutr. 1992 Sep;56(3):533-6.
13 infants with iron-deficiency anemia, 9 of the 13 had vitamin D levels < 10ng
Treated infants with intramuscular iron
BOTH serum Iron and vitamin D increased
Some of the infants had previously been non-responders to vitamin D supplementation
- PDF is attached at the bottom of this page
- Prevalence and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in children with iron deficiency anemia
PubMed Korea, June 2012, full text online
Studied 79 children with Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA)
5X more likely to have vitamin D deficiency if have IDA and were < 2 years old
- Relationship between vitamin D deficiency, bone remodelling and iron status in iron-deficient young women consuming an iron-fortified food.- Eur J Nutr. 2012 May 23.
41 iron-deficient menstruating women. 92 % were vitamin D insufficient
Random Controlled Trial: half got fruit juice fortified with iron
Transferrin saturation and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were positively correlated.
The recovery of iron status by consuming an iron-fortified food does not affect 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels; however, the increase in iron supply to tissues is lower if the women also present vitamin D deficiency.
- Low Vitamin D in Kids May Play a Role in Anemia Science Daily May 2011
9,400 children, 2 to 18 years of age; < 20 ng 50% higher risk for anemia
For each 1 ng/ml increase in vitamin D, anemia risk dropped by 3 %.
Only 1 % of white children had anemia, compared with 9 % of black children.
- Low vitamin D levels raise anemia risk in children Medical XPress Oct 2013
2X more likely if < 30 ng, Black children had higher rates of anemia compared with white children (14 percent vs. 2 percent)
- Vitamin D, race, and risk for anemia in children. Jan 2013
1.9X more likely if < 30 ng
- CDC says American Need more Vitamin D and Iron April 2012
Study looked at 58 nutrients.
Iodine came close, but CDC concluded that only Vitamin D and Iron were important to the nation
Note: Iodine also very important to individuals,
- Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D with anemia risk in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery May 2013
"'demonstrates an independent association between vitamin D status and anemia risk"
- Vitamin D deficiency and anemia: a cross-sectional study - Oct 2009
1.9X more likely to have anemia if low Vitamin D  Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
- How to Make a Smartphone Detect Anemia
MIT Review Sept 2016, Interesting, but nothing about Vitamin D
- Craving Ice? You Could Have an Iron Deficiency Mercola Nov 2016
Ice reduces Anemia symptoms. Craving = more than 1 month of eating ice
Also mentions association between Anemia and low vitamin D
- Iron Deficiency Anemia Tied to Hearing Loss NYT Jan 2017
305,339 adults ages 21 to 90, of whom 4,807 had hearing loss and 2,274 had iron deficiency anemia. (48%)
The word vitamin does not appear in the study
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Hypothesis of interactions between Iron and Vitamin C - 2016
Bonnie and Clyde: Vitamin C and iron are partners in crime in iron deficiency anaemia and its potential role in the elderly.
Aging (Albany NY). 2016 May;8(5):1150-2. doi: 10.18632/aging.100966.
Lane DJ1, Jansson PJ1, Richardson DR1.
1Department of Pathology and Bosch Institute, Molecular Pharmacology and Pathology Program, Blackburn Building, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, 2006, Australia.
PMID: 27208799 PMCID: PMC4931859 DOI: 10.18632/aging.100966
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Vegetarians and vegans have less vitamin D in blood: Less Iron?
Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: results from the EPIC-Oxford study.
- Vegan vitamin D levels are only 22 ng – Feb 2011 in VitaminDWiki, along with PDF of the study
The study accounted for the vitamin D from meat, fish, and vegetables
Comment by VitaminDWiki
Strongly suspect the reason for the results found is:
Vegetarian/Vegan ==> Decreased Iron ==> Decreased Liver ability to process vitamin D
- Meat: 124 IU daily ==>31 ng
- V/V: 28 IU daily ==>22 ng
That is: increase of 100 IU ==> increase of 10 ng
But, other studies show that need 400 IU to 800 IU ==> 10ng
- Overview Vitamin D Dose-Response which shows about 800 IU needed to raise blood level by 10ng
- Every 400 IU increase of vitamin D3 increases serum level about 8 ng– Systematic Review Aug 2012
Options for Vegetarians/Vegans include:
- Supplement with Iron (such as with the patented Iron supplement at the bottom of this page)
- Eat vegetables along with vitamin C - which increases the amount of Iron available from plants.
- Supplement with vitamin D3 (Three companies sell Vegan D3)
- Spend more time in the sun or with a UV lamp
- How you might double your response to vitamin D
Iron Deficiency Guide has the following venn diagram
What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? NIH
- About 1 in 5 women of childbearing age has iron-deficiency anemia.
- About half of all pregnant women develop iron-deficiency anemia.
The condition can increase a pregnant woman's risk for a premature or low-birth-weight baby.
Iron Deficiency Anemia American Family Physician, March 2007, full text on-line
The prevalence of iron deficiency anemia
- 2 % in adult men,
- 7.1 % in white women:
- 9 to 12 % in non-Hispanic white women,
- nearly 20 % in black and Mexican-American women.
- 40 % of vegans 19 to 50 years of age
Iron Therapy Organization online textbook: contents
- Introduction: Iron Deficiency and Iron Therapy
- Ch.1: Iron Metabolism
- Ch.2: Management of Iron-Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy and the Postpartum
- Ch.3: Iron Therapy in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
- Ch.4: Intravenous Iron Therapy in the Perisurgical Setting as an Alternative to Red Blood Cell Transfusions
- Ch.5: Iron Therapy in Chronic Heart Failure (CHF)
- Ch.6: Iron Therapy in Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)
- Ch.7: Iron Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Ch.8: Iron Therapy in the Critically Ill
- Ch.9: Iron Therapy in Pediatrics
- Ch.10: Iron Therapy in the Oncology Setting
Note: Less iron in diet in recent decades due to
- No longer cooking in iron pots
- Eating less red meat
- 1981 theory proposed that Iron could increase CVD – never confirmed or refuted.
- Drinking more milk Milk decreases iron while increasing vitamin
The American Dietetic Association’s COMPLETE FOOD & NUTRITION GUIDE, 2nd ed. 2002. USDA National Nutrient Database
Reminder - Heme iron from meat is about 3X more available to the liver than Iron from plant sources
Nutrition for Everyone: Iron and Iron Deficiency CDC adapted from 1998 source
Lots of material, including:
How is iron deficiency detected?
- Your doctor or healthcare provider will do blood tests to screen for iron deficiency. The most common tests for screening are
Hemoglobin test (a test that measures hemoglobin which is a protein in the blood that carries oxygen)
Hematocrit test (the percentage of red blood cells in your blood by volume)
- Sometimes other blood tests are used to confirm that anemia is due to iron deficiency. These might include
Complete blood count (to look at the number and volume of the red blood cells)
Serum ferritin (a measure of a stored form of iron)
Serum iron (a measure of the iron in your blood)
Transferrin saturation (a measure of the transported form of iron)
Transferrin receptor (a measure of increased red blood cell production)
- To improve absorption of non-meat sources, have vitamin-C rich food.in the same meal
Decreasing Iron in the blood (US CDC 2002)
Iron Deficiency anemia
Iron-Deficiency Anemia - How to Get the Most Iron Out of Your Diet and Supplements EZIneArticles July 2012
There are MANY medical drugs that deplete Iron from the body. Some of the categories are:
> Antacids: such as those used to reduce stomach acidity, GERD, etc.
> Antibiotics: cephalosporins, penicillins, tetracyclines, etc.
> Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: ibuprofen, steroids, etc.
> Blood Pressure Lowering Drugs: calcium-channel blockers, ACE-Inhibitors, and others.
> Diuretics: "water pills", > And the list goes on...
Some of the commonly-used natural supplements that deplete Iron by binding to it either in the blood or digestive tract:
> Calcium, > Magnesium, > Artichoke, > Cascara sagrada, > Chamomile, > CoQ10, > And the list goes on...
Some foods and drinks that deplete Iron:
> Dairy products, > Coffee, > Tea, > Alcohol & Wines
Notes on P.P.I.
- Proton Pump Inhibitors: Acid Suppression with a Nutritional Cost June 2014
Long term use of P.P.I. (years) reduces stomach acid such that both Iron and vitamin B12 must be supplemented
- Combating Acid Reflux May Bring Host of Ills NYT June 2012
. . third highest-selling class of drugs in the US, $13.9 billion in prescription sales in 2010
"P.P.I.’s work by blocking the production of acid in the stomach, but the body reacts by overcompensating and, she said, “revving up production” of acid-making cells. “You get excess growth of those cells in the stomach, so when you unblock production, you have more of the acid-making machinery,” she said."
- Omeprazole & Iron Deficiency Anemia Feb 2014
"Patients taking omeprazole for chronic stomach disorders may require iron injections to prevent iron deficiency anemia."
- Smoking Gun for Stomach Drugs Mercola, June 2016
"PPI medications are designed to inhibit the proton pump and reduce the amount of acid produced. PPIs do not specifically target the cells in your stomach, and stomach acid is usually not the primary trigger behind chronic heartburn."
"PPIs may reduce acid between 90 and 95 percent, increasing your risk of salmonella, c. difficile, giardia and listeria infections"
Iron Deficiency and Anemia, Causes, Consequences, and Solutions Excellent
Parul Christian, International Nutrition, 2005  Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Example image: Prevalence of Anemia (Iron anemia being the largest cause)
Anemia varies with age and sex
- Prevalence of anemia in persons 65 years and older in the United States: evidence for a high rate of unexplained anemia
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
perhaps the increase in anemia with age is due to decrease in stomach acid
- Gastric Balance: Heartburn Not Always Caused by Excess Acid April 2013
Effects of Iron on Vitamin D Metabolism: A Systematic Review - Dec 2016
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Short URL = http://is.gd/anemiaVitD
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