Toxicol Mech Methods. 2017 Sep;27(7):477-500. doi: 10.1080/15376516.2017.1323986. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
Genuis SJ1, Kyrillos E2.
1 Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta , Edmonton , Alberta , Canada.
2 Department of Family Medicine , Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa , Ottawa , Ontario , Canada.
Recent evidence highlights the reality of unprecedented human exposure to toxic chemical agents found throughout our environment - in our food and water supply, in the air we breathe, in the products we apply to our skin, in the medical and dental materials placed into our bodies, and even within the confines of the womb. With biomonitoring confirming the widespread bioaccumulation of myriad toxicants among population groups, expanding research continues to explore the pathobiological impact of these agents on human metabolism.
This review was prepared by assessing available medical and scientific literature from Medline as well as by reviewing several books, toxicology journals, government publications, and conference proceedings. The format of a traditional integrated review was chosen.
Toxicant exposure and accrual has been linked to numerous biochemical and pathophysiological mechanisms of harm. Some toxicants effect metabolic disruption via multiple mechanisms.
As a primary causative determinant of chronic disease, toxicant exposures induce metabolic disruption in myriad ways, which consequently result in varied clinical manifestations, which are then categorized by health providers into innumerable diagnoses. Chemical disruption of human metabolism has become an etiological determinant of much illness throughout the lifecycle, from neurodevelopmental abnormalities in-utero to dementia in the elderly.
Notes by VitaminDWiki are in italix
|Drug or type of drug||Possible deficiency|
|Antacids||Folic acid, Calcium, Copper, Phosphate, Vitamin A, Vitamin B12|
|Antibiotics||Vitamin K, L-leucine, Biotin|
|Beta-adrenergic blocking agents||Coenzyme Q10|
|Bile acid sequestrants||Calcium, Carotenoids, Folic acid, Vitamins A, D, E, K, Zinc|
|Bisacodyl (Dulcolax, stimulant laxative)||Potassium|
|Chemotherapy||Magnesium, Vitamin B2, Taurine, and many other nutrients|
Note: Vitamin D increases many Chemotherapies
|Cholestyramine||Carotenoids, Fat, Folic acid, Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, |
Zinc, Vitamin A, Vitamin B12, Vitamins A, D , E, K
|Conjugated oestrogens (Premarin)||Vitamin B6|
|Corticosteroids||Calcium, DHEA, Magnesium, Melatonin, Potassium, Folic acid, |
Vitamin B6, B12, C, D, K, E, Selenium, Zinc
|Digitalis (Digoxin, Lanoxin, Digitoxin)||Magnesium, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium|
|Diuretics||Magnesium, Potassium, Zinc, Vitamin B1|
|L-dopa ( Levodopa, Dopar, Larodapa)||Vitamin B6, Potassium|
|Edetate :Calcium disodium (EDTA)||Calcium, Zinc|
|Furosemide (Frusemide, loop diuretic)||Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Vitamin B1, Vitamins B6 and C|
|Histamine H2-antagonists||Iron, Zinc, Folic acid, VitaminB12|
|Isoniazid (INH, Laniazid, Rifamate, Rimactane)||Calcium, Folic acid, Magnesium, Vitamins B3, B6, B12, D , E, K|
|Losartan (Cozaar, angiotensin-II receptor antagonist)||Calcium, Chloride, Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium, Phosphate|
|Metformin (Glucophage)||Vitamin B9,B12|
|Methotrexate||Calcium, Vitamin B9|
|Oral contraceptives||Magnesium, Manganese, Zinc, Folic acid, Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6, B122, C|
Note: Many Oral contraceptives increase Vitamin D
|Proton Pump Inhibitors||Beta carotene, Vitamin B12, Calcium|
Note:PPI may decrease Magnesium
|Simvastatin (Zocor)||Coenzyme Q10, Vitamin E, Beta carotene|
|Thiazide diuretics||Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium, Zinc|
|Ventolin (Albuterol/Salbutamol/Proventil)||Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphate, Potassium|
Note: Does not consider Omega-3, Iodine, nor Boron
- Child Asthma increased 2.1 X by antibiotics, Child milk allergy increased 4.4 X by PPI – April 2018
- Drugs that may harm bone (vitamin D needed) -April 2016
- More vitamin D needed if person is taking Glucocorticoids – June 2015
- Some anticonvulsant drugs significantly reduce vitamin D levels – Aug 2014
- Hormonal contraceptives associated with higher vitamin D levels - 2013, 2018
- Review of vitamin D interaction with drugs – Jan 2014
- Acid Reflux drugs decrease Vitamin D and Magnesium – Jan 2013
- 7 reasons to not take proton pump inhibitors ( try ginger instead) – Dec 2018
- Drugs Deplete Magnesium
- Drug–Vitamin D Interactions, A Systematic Review – Jan 2013
- Vitamin D interactions with drugs – Oct 2011
- Vitamin B12
- Interaction of drugs with Vitamin D cofactors