Korean J Pediatr. 2015 Aug;58(8):283-7. doi: 10.3345/kjp.2015.58.8.283. Epub 2015 Aug 21.
Kang YS1, Kim JH1, Ahn EH2, Yoo EG1, Kim MK3.
1Department of Pediatrics, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea.
2Department of Obstetrics, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University School of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea.
3Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
- Breastfed infants: 90 percent had less than 20 ng of vitamin D, formula-fed: 15 percent – May 2013 Korea
- Iron deficiency is a cause of Vitamin D deficiency
- Breastfeeding mother getting 6400 IU of Vitamin D is similar to infant getting 400 IU – RCT Sept 2015
Items in both categories Iron and Infant-Child are listed here:
- Vitamin D deficiency 2.5 X more likely in iron-deficient children – Dec 2018
- Anemia in children 3.5 X more likely if low vitamin D – March 2018
- Breastfed infants 6 times more likely to deficient in Vitamin D and Iron – Aug 2015
- Anemia 1.9X more likely in white children having lowish vitamin D – Jan 2014
- Review of Micronutrients such as vitamin D for women and childhood – Aug 2013
- Infants who have iron deficiency anemia are 4X more likely to be vitamin D deficient – March 2013
We assessed the relationships between iron and vitamin D statuses in breastfed infants and their mothers and evaluated the determinants of iron and vitamin D deficiencies in breastfed infants.
Seventy breastfed infants aged 4-24 months and their mothers participated in this study from February 2012 to May 2013. Complete blood counts, total iron binding capacity, and levels of C-reactive protein, iron, ferritin, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in infants and their mothers were measured.
A history of maternal prepregnancy anemia was associated with lower ferritin and 25(OH)D levels in both infants and their mothers. The 25(OH)D level of infants correlated with maternal 25(OH) D levels.
The independent risk factors for iron deficiency in breastfed infants were
- the duration of breastfeeding (odds ratio [OR], 6.54; 95% confidence interval CI, 1.09-39.2; P=0.04) and
- infant body weight (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.07-6.56; P=0.04).
The determinants for vitamin D deficiency were the infant's age (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.02-0.97; P=0.046) and maternal 25(OH)D level (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.59-0.92; P=0.01).
A maternal history of prepregnancy anemia requiring iron therapy was associated with lower current ferritin and 25(OH)D levels in both infants and their mothers. Therefore, physicians should monitor not only iron but also vitamin D levels in infants who are breastfed by mothers who had prepregnancy anemia.