RLS has been treated by Vitamin D, Magnesium and Iron
Table of contents
- RLS in VitaminDWiki
- RLS treated by weekly 50,000 IU of vitamin D - Feb 2020
- RLS 3 X more likely if < 20 ng/mL of Vitamin D (8X if a teacher) – March 2018
- RLS associated with many other Vitamin D Deficiency diseases - July 2017
- Restless legs syndrome associated with (a few) major diseases -A systematic review and new concept - April 2016
- RLS score dropped from 26 to 10 after Vitamin D levels were raised to just 25 nanograms - 2014
- Restless Legs Syndrome 5X more likely if vitamin D deficient - May 2014
- See also RLS WikiPedia Aug 2014 (nothing about vitamin D)
- Magnesium reduced RLS - 1998
- See also web - RLS and Vitamin D
- See also web - RLS and Magnesium
- See also VitaminDWiki - Magnesium
- See also web - RLS and Iron
- See also VitaminDWiki - Iron
- RLS triggers - Oct 2018
- RLS not treated by weekly 50,000 IU of vitamin D, but was treated by placebo - RCT Nov 2018
Unknown amount of vitamin D was given to 12 adults with Restless Legs Syndrome
RLS scores decreased dramatically from 26 down to 10
RLS Scoring is attached at the bottom on this page: 40 = worst to 0 = none
Vitamin D levels went from 9 ng/mL to 25 ng/mL (trial lasted until each patient got > 20 ng: 3-8 months)
Some received vitamin D orally, others by injection.
Dosing was 8,000 IU liquid vitamin D/week OR 200,000 IU injection/ month
Download the PDF from Research Gate via VitaminDWiki
- RLS, Tremor, Huntington’s and other hyperkinetic disorders associated with low Vitamin D – review Aug 2020
- Restless Leg Syndrome linked to brain genes associated with Vitamin D and Iron – Nov 2019
- Proof that Vitamin D Works
- Restless Legs Syndrome has increased risk with diabetes – many studies
- Restless legs and growing pains may be both due to low vitamin D – Sept 2013 nice Venn diagram
- Growing pains reduced after supplementing with some vitamin D – March 2014
- The Optimal Dose - Restore Your Health With the Power of Vitamin D3 - 2018 Vitamin D cures RLS
- Restless legs syndrome 5X more likely if low vitamin D – May 2014 and below
- Restless Legs Syndrome and ADHD strongly associated (no mention of vitamin D) – 2005 Vitamin D and/or Iron
People with RLS often benefit from Magnesium and/or Iron (see bottom of this page)
VitaminDWiki expects RLS might be eliminated with if higher vitamin D levels were achieved in combination with Magnesium/Iron
Cartoon from the web
The Effect of Vitamin D on Restless Legs Syndrome: Prospective Self-Controlled Case Study
Sleep Breath, 2020 Feb 20, DOI: 10.1007/s11325-019-01984-3
Mesude Tutuncu 1, Melih Tutuncu 2
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of vitamin D on severity of restless legs syndrome in patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS).
Methods: Patients with idiopathic RLS completed questionnaires including the International Restless Legs Severity Scale (IRLSS) and were evaluated for vitamin D deficiency. Patients with deficiency of vitamin D were treated with 50,000 units per week for 2 months. At the end of the 2 months, vitamin D levels were re-measured and disease severity was re-evaluated in patients who reached adequate vitamin D level. Subgroups of IRLSS questionnaire were also analyzed.
Results: Of 35 patients enrolled, 21 (60%) had vitamin D deficiency and received vitamin D therapy. In 2 patients, vitamin D levels did not rise to sufficient levels with supplementation and these 2 patients were excluded from analysis. The remaining 19 patients showed
- vitamin D levels increased from 13.2 ± 4.0 to 42.8 ± 9.6 ng/mL while
- IRLSS improved from 24.9 ± 5.1 to 21.1 ± 2.9 points (p <0.001).
Selected subscores of the IRLSS were also improved including
- symptom severity (p <0.001),
- impact on sleep (p <0.001),
- symptom measures (p =0.002), and
- disease impact measures (p <0.001).
There were trends toward improvement in subscores of frequency (p =0.11) and mood (p =0.051).
Conclusions: The findings suggest that vitamin D levels should be evaluated in patients with RLS and if vitamin D deficiency is revealed, consideration should be given to replacement therap
The Association Between Vitamin D Level and Restless Legs Syndrome: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.
J Clin Sleep Med. 2018 Mar 30. pii: jc-17-00496.
Wali S, Alsafadi S, Abaalkhail B, Ramadan I, Abulhamail B, Kousa M, Alshamrani R, Faruqui H, Faruqui A, Alama M, Hamed M.
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS) may be related to abnormalities in central dopamine pathways. Vitamin D may play a role in the pathophysiology of RLS by modulating the dopaminergic system. The aim of our study is to examine the possible link between RLS and vitamin D deficiency.
METHODS: The total number of subjects enrolled was 201, including 78 patients with RLS based on the International RLS Study Group (IRLSSG) diagnostic criteria and 123 controls. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels were measured in both groups. RLS severity was assessed in all cases using the IRLSSG symptom severity rating scale.
RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients with RLS (75.6%) and 52 controls (42.3%) had a diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency, P< .001. The odds ratio (OR) of the development of RLS was 4.24 for those with a vitamin D level < 50 nmol/L compared to those with a vitamin D level ≥ 50 nmol/L (P< .001, 95% confidence interval CI 2.3-7.9).
After adjusting for all other significant factors in the multivariate logistic model, vitamin D was significantly associated with RLS (OR 3.1, P< .002, 95% CI 1.51-6.38).
Moreover, a dark or black skin color (OR 3.4, P< .001, 95% CI 1.5-6.3) and working as a teacher (OR 8.8, P< .001, 95% CI 3.4-23.5) were also independently significantly associated with RLS.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified an association between vitamin D deficiency and RLS. Consequently, vitamin D deficiency should be considered in the management of RLS. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the causality relationship between vitamin D level and RLS.
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Restless Legs Syndrome, the Pitfall: Hardly Diagnosed and Rarely Treated Neurological Disease
Vishal ChavdaVishal ChavdaSnehal S PatelSnehal S Patel
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
Associated with many other Vitamin D Deficiency Diseases
Restless legs syndrome is a chronic progressive sleep associated sensory motor disorder which develops within the neurological disorders like Parkinsonism, Neuropathy pain and possible dementia. The global prevalence of restless legs syndrome is increasing day by day and research studies have been reported the essential need for research in specific diagnosis and treatment of restless legs syndrome. Prevalence of Restless legs syndrome is more in Female and pregnant women than men in the almost whole world. In India and many other countries of Asia and throughout the world the term Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is still a questionnaire. It is reported many a time by the Physicians, Neurologists and Gynecologists as a mal-diagnosis of Restless legs syndrome in India and in others countries also. The exact pathophysiology of the RLS is still not clear, but some superficial assumptions regarding the progressions of disease and root of disease through the gene molecular concepts. Few Traditional Chinese medicine and allopathic medicine have been reported a successful treatment of RLS, but it is either symptomatic or depends on time management. Dopamine Agonist and opioids are possible symptomatic treatment for RLS, but no treatment is available if it has entered in a severe stage of RLS. Relations to the lower cerebral ferric and Dopamine levels are probably ....
Restless legs syndrome associated with (a few) major diseases -A systematic review and new concept - April 2016
Neurology 86 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000002542
Claudia Trenkwalder, Richard Allen, Birgit Högl, Walter Paulus, Juliane Winkelmann
Recent publications on both the genetics and environmental factors of restless legs syndrome (RLS) defined as a clinical disorder suggest that overlapping genetic risk factors may play a role in primary (idiopathic) and secondary (symptomatic) RLS. Following a systematic literature search of RLS associated with comorbidities, we identified an increased prevalence of RLS only in iron deficiency and kidney disease.
- cardiovascular disease,
- arterial hypertension,
- migraine, and
- Parkinson disease
the methodology of studies was poor, but an association might be possible.
There is insufficient evidence for conditions such as anemia (without iron deficiency), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, multiple sclerosis, headache, stroke, narcolepsy, and ataxias. Based on possible gene–microenvironmental interaction, the classifications primary and secondary RLS may suggest an inappropriate causal relation. We recognize that in some conditions, treatment of the underlying disease should be achieved as far as possible to reduce or eliminate RLS symptoms. RLS might be seen as a continuous spectrum with a major genetic contribution at one end and a major environmental or comorbid disease contribution at the other.
The effect of vitamin D supplements on the severity of restless legs syndrome
Sleep Breath. 2014 Aug 23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11325-014-1049-y
Wali S1, Shukr A, Boudal A, Alsaiari A, Krayem A.
1Sleep Medicine and Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, sowali at kau.edu.sa.
Clinical observation hinted improved symptoms of restless legs syndrome (RLS) after vitamin D supplements. Hence, the aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the severity of RLS symptoms.
Twelve adult subjects diagnosed with primary RLS and vitamin D deficiency were recruited. Patients with secondary RLS were excluded from this study. The complete cell count; serum levels of ferritin, iron, glycated hemoglobin, and vitamin D3 (25 (OH) vitamin D); and renal and bone profiles of the patients were assayed. Patients with vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/l) were treated with vitamin D3 supplements (high oral dose or intramuscular injection). The severity scores of RLS were reassessed after the vitamin D3 level was corrected to >50 nmol/l and compared with those before the administration of the supplements.
The median pretreatment vitamin D level was 21.7 nmol/l (13.45-57.4), which improved to 61.8 nmol/l (42.58-95.9) (P = 0.002) with the treatment. The median RLS severity score improved significantly from 26 (15-35) at baseline to 10 (0-27) after correction of the vitamin D levels (P = 0.002).
This study indicates that vitamin D supplementation improves the severity of RLS symptoms and advocates that vitamin D deficiency is conceivably associated with RLS.
Publisher wants $40 for the PDF
Sci-Hub.tw has a free copy - March 2018
- Ohayon MM, O'Hara R, Vitiello MV (2012) Epidemiology of restless legs syndrome: a synthesis of the literature. Sleep Med Rev 16:283–295 CrossRef
- Phillips B, Young T, Finn L, Asher K, Hening WA, Purvis C (2000) Epidemiology of restless legs symptoms in adults. Arch Intern Med 160:2137–2141 CrossRef
- Berger K, Luedemann J, Trenkwalder C, John U, Kessler C (2004) Sex and the risk of restless legs syndrome in the general population. Arch Intern Med 164:196 CrossRef
- Ibia M, Sawadab H, Nakanishia M, Kumea T, Katsukia H, Kanekoc S, Shimohamab S, Akaikea A (2001) Protective effects of 1,25-(OH)2D3 against the neurotoxicity of glutamate and reactive oxygen species in mesencephalic culture. Neuropharmacology 40:761–771 CrossRef
- Prakash S, Bhanvadia RJ, Shah ND (2010) Restless legs syndrome with carbamazepine-induced osteomalacia: causal or casual association. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 32(2):228
- Allen RP, Picchietti D, Hening WA, Trenkwalder C, Walters AS, Montplaisi J (2003) Restless legs syndrome: diagnostic criteria, special considerations, and epidemiology. A report from the restless legs syndrome diagnosis and epidemiology workshop at the National Institutes of Health. Sleep Med 4(2):101–119 CrossRef
- Walters AS, LeBrocq C, Dhar A, Hening W, Rosen R, Allen RP, Trenkwalder C, International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (2003) Validation of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group rating scale for restless legs syndrome. Sleep Med 4:121–132 CrossRef
- Abetz L, Arbuckle R, Allen RP, Garcia-Borreguero D, Hening W, Walters AS, Mavraki E, Kirsch JM (2006) The reliability, validity and responsiveness of the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group rating scale and subscales in a clinical-trial setting. Sleep Med 7(4):340–349 CrossRef
- Alsuwadia AO, Farag YM, Al Sayyari AA, Mousa DH, Alhejaili FF, Al-Harbi AS, Housawi AA, Mittal BV, Singh AK (2013) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Saudi adults. Saudi Med J 34(8):814–818
- BaHammam A, Al-shahrani K, Al-zahrani S, Al-shammari A, Al-amri N, Sharif M (2011) The prevalence of restless legs syndrome in adult Saudis attending primary health care. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 33(2):102–106 CrossRef
- Balaban H, Yıldız ÖK, Çil G, Şentürk İA, Erselcan T, Bolayır E, Topaktaş S (2012) Serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D levels in restless legs syndrome patients. Sleep Med 13(7):953–957 CrossRef
- Allen RP, Earley CJ (2007) The role of iron in restless legs syndrome. MovDisord 22(18):440–448
- Zucconi M, Manconi M (2008) Sleep and quality of life in restless legs syndrome. In: Verster JC, Pandi-Perumal SR, Streiner D (eds) Sleep and quality of life in clinical medicine. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ
- Manconi M, Ferri R, Zucconi M, Clemens S, Giarolli L, Bottasini V, Ferini-Strambi L (2011) Preferential D2 or preferential D3 dopamine agonists in restless legs syndrome. Neurology 77(2):110–117 CrossRef
- Walters AS, Rye DB (2009) Review of the relationship of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movements in sleep to hypertension, heart disease, and stroke. Sleep 32(5):589–597
- Meguro S, Tomita M, Katsuki T, Kato K, Oh H, Ainai A, Ito R, Takeda S, Kawai T, Atsumi Y, Itoh H, Hasegawa H (2011) Plasma 25- hydroxyvitamin D is independently associated with hemoglobin concentration in male subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Endocrinol 362981:5. doi:10.1155/2011
- Abou-Raya S, Helmii M, Abou-Raya A (2009) Bone and mineral metabolism in older adults with Parkinson’s disease. Age Ageing 38(6):675–680 CrossRef
- Evatt ML, Delong MR, Khazai N, Rosen A, Triche S, Tangpricha V (2008) Prevalence of vitamin d insufficiency in patients with Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 65(10):1348–1352
- Cui X, Pelekanos M, Liu PY, Burne TH, McGrath JJ, Eyles DW (2013) The vitamin D receptor in dopamine neurons; its presence in human substantia nigra and its ontogenesis in rat midbrain. Neuroscience 236:77–87 CrossRef
- Newmark HL, Newmark J (2007) Vitamin D and Parkinson’s disease—a hypothesis. Mov Disord 22(4):461–468 CrossRef
- Danielle ED, Lydia MM, Natalie LC, Jeanne EM, Mahlon RD, Kurt DP, Jonathan AD, Tangpricha V, Gary WM, Marian LE (2012) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D depletion does not exacerbate MPTP-induced dopamine neuron damage in mice. PLoS ONE 7(7):e39227 CrossRef
- Garcia-Borreguero D, Kohnen R, Boothby L, Tzonova D, Larrosa O, Dunkl E (2013) Validation of the multiple suggested immobilization test: a test for the assessment of severity of restless legs syndrome (Willis-Ekbom disease). Sleep 36(7):1101–1109
Possible association between vitamin D deficiency and restless legs syndrome
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014 May 21;10:953-8. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S63599. eCollection 2014.
Oran M1, Unsal C2, Albayrak Y2, Tulubas F3, Oguz K4, Avci O1, Turgut N4, Alp R4, Gurel A3.
BACKGROUND AND AIM:
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a distressing sleep disorder that occurs worldwide. Although there have been recent developments in understanding the pathophysiology of RLS, the exact mechanism of the disease has not been well elucidated. An increased prevalence of neurologic and psychiatric diseases involving dopaminergic dysfunction in vitamin D-deficient patients led us to hypothesize that vitamin D deficiency might result in dopaminergic dysfunction and consequently, the development of RLS (in which dopaminergic dysfunction plays a pivotal role). Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and RLS.
One hundred and fifty-five consecutive patients, 18-65 years of age, who were admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine with musculoskeletal symptoms and who subsequently underwent neurological and electromyography (EMG) examination by the same senior neurologist, were included in this study. The patients were divided into two groups according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (a vitamin D metabolite used as a measure of vitamin D status) level: 36 patients with serum 25(OH)D levels ≥20 ng/mL comprised the normal vitamin D group, and 119 patients with serum 25(OH)D levels <20 ng/mL comprised the vitamin D deficiency group. The two groups were compared for the presence of RLS and associated factors.
The two groups were similar in terms of mean age, sex, mean body mass index (BMI), and serum levels of calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and ferritin. The presence of RLS was significantly higher in the vitamin D deficiency group (χ (2)=12.87, P<0.001). Regression analysis showed vitamin D deficiency and serum 25(OH)D level to be significantly associated with the presence of RLS (odds ratio [OR] 5.085, P<0.001 and OR 1.047, P=0.006, respectively).
The present study demonstrated a possible association between vitamin D deficiency and RLS. Given the dopaminergic effects of vitamin D, 25(OH)D depletion may lead to dopaminergic dysfunction and may have a place in the etiology of RLS. Prospective vitamin D treatment studies are needed to confirm this relationship and to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin D as a treatment for RLS patients.
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
See also RLS WikiPedia Aug 2014 (nothing about vitamin D)
- Restless legs syndrome (RLS) also known as Willis-Ekbom disease (WED) or Wittmaack-Ekbom syndrome, is a neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move one's body to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations. It most commonly affects the legs, but can affect the arms, torso, head, and even phantom limbs. Moving the affected body part modulates the sensations, providing temporary relief.
- RLS sensations range from pain or an aching in the muscles, to "an itch you can't scratch", an unpleasant "tickle that won't stop", or even a "crawling" feeling. The sensations typically begin or intensify during quiet wakefulness, such as when relaxing, reading, studying, or trying to sleep. Additionally, most individuals with RLS suffer from periodic limb movement disorder (limbs jerking during sleep), which is an objective physiologic marker of the disorder and is associated with sleep disruption. It can be caused by low iron levels.
- RLS affects an estimated 2.5 to 15% of the American population . A minority (around 2.7% of the population) experience daily or severe symptoms.
Magnesium therapy for periodic leg movements-related insomnia and restless legs syndrome: an open pilot study.
Sleep. 1998 Aug 1;21(5):501-5.
Hornyak M1, Voderholzer U, Hohagen F, Berger M, Riemann D.
Periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS), with or without symptoms of a restless legs syndrome (RLS), may cause sleep disturbances. The pharmacologic treatments of choice are dopaminergic drugs. Their use, however, may be limited due to tolerance development or rebound phenomena. Anecdotal observations have shown that oral magnesium therapy may ameliorate symptoms in patients with moderate RLS. We report on an open clinical and polysomnographic study in 10 patients (mean age 57 +/- 9 years; 6 men, 4 women) suffering from insomnia related to PLMS (n = 4) or mild-to-moderate RLS (n = 6). Magnesium was administered orally at a dose of 12.4 mmol in the evening over a period of 4-6 weeks. Following magnesium treatment, PLMS associated with arousals (PLMS-A) decreased significantly (17 +/- 7 vs 7 +/- 7 events per hour of total sleep time, p < 0.05). PLMS without arousal were also moderately reduced (PLMS per hour of total sleep time 33 +/- 16 vs 21 +/- 23, p = 0.07). Sleep efficiency improved from 75 +/- 12% to 85 +/- 8% (p < 0.01).
In the group of patients estimating their sleep and/or symptoms of RLS as improved after therapy (n = 7), the effects of magnesium on PLMS and PLMS-A were even more pronounced. Our study indicates that magnesium treatment may be a useful alternative therapy in patients with mild or moderate RLS-or PLMS-related insomnia. Further investigations regarding the role of magnesium in the pathophysiology of RLS and placebo-controlled studies need to be performed.
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
- Vitamin D and restless legs syndrome: Where does the research stand?
Vitamin D Council 2013 - brief overview
- Vitamin D fails to treat restless legs syndromeNov 2017
50,000 IU Vitamin D for only 12 weeks - longer is needed without loading dose. Iron and Magnesium were not mentioned
- The Association Between Vitamin D Level and Restless Legs Syndrome: A Population-Based Case-Control Study March 2018
Risk of RLS 3.1 X higher if < 20ng of vitamin D (after adjustment)
- Restless Legs and Heart Disease Dr. Dean, Magnesium Jan 2018
By the way, the admin of VitaminDWiki applies Magnesium Chloride topically to his legs to quickly eliminate soreness
The MgCl (topical and oral) also eliminated occasional twitchy (restless?) legs
- Search Google for "restless legs" (magnesium OR iron) 540,000 hits March 2018
- The Link Between Magnesium and Restless Leg Syndrome Healthline March 2017
- 101 RLS products on Amazon include Magnesium (March 2018)
- Overview Magnesium and vitamin D
- Magnesium and Vitamin D category listing has
259 items along with related searches
Restless Leg Syndrome - free ebook, Magnesium
Download the ebook from VitaminDWiki.
- NIH RLS Fact Sheet
No mention of Vitamin D nor Magnesium
- Treatment for Restless Legs Syndrome John Hopkins
Many teatments, including Iron - which has been known to help RLS since the 1950's
- Restless Legs Syndrome NYT Sept 2014
Iron is the primary oral remedy which they mention
- Search Google for "restless legs" (magnesium OR iron) 540,000 hits March 2018
- Understanding Iron and Restless Legs Syndrome RLS.org, 2 page free PDF
- Iron deficiency is a cause of Vitamin D deficiency describes extremely bio-available Iron supplements
- Iron category has
53 items along with related searches
RLS triggers, RLS Foundation
Note: Smoking decreases Vitamin D, Caffine decreases Magnesium absorption
Efficacy of vitamin D replacement therapy in restless legs syndrome: a randomized control trial.This page was renamed April 2018. There have actually been
Sleep Breath. 2018 Nov 14. doi: 10.1007/s11325-018-1751-2.
Strangely, RLS decreased in placebo group but NOT in the Vitamin D group
Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki
146966 visitors to this page since it was originally madeRestless Legs Syndrome dramatically reduced by vitamin D, etc 31589 visitors, last modified 12 Sep, 2020,This page is in the following categories (# of items in each category)Vitamin D and Magnesium 259 Intervention 640 Sleep 70 Vitamin D and Iron 53
ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads 14299 RLS RG.pdf admin 12 Sep, 2020 07:25 543.97 Kb 84 13664 RLS sci-hub.pdf PDF 2020 admin 23 Mar, 2020 00:06 311.13 Kb 248 13243 RLS associations 2017.jpg admin 28 Dec, 2019 15:46 38.26 Kb 1316 13242 RLS 2017.jpg admin 28 Dec, 2019 15:45 117.36 Kb 1278 13241 RLS July 2017.pdf admin 28 Dec, 2019 15:44 3.40 Mb 418 13004 RLS Wali.pdf admin 19 Nov, 2019 14:00 790.34 Kb 376 12559 RLS triggers.jpg admin 29 Aug, 2019 23:59 71.30 Kb 10867 7138 RLS Magnesium.jpg admin 02 Oct, 2016 18:07 15.14 Kb 6076 7137 RLS Magnesium 1998.pdf admin 02 Oct, 2016 18:07 126.63 Kb 1302 4441 FixRestlessLegsEbook.pdf admin 01 Oct, 2014 22:37 677.71 Kb 165965 4326 RLS - May 2014.pdf PDF 2014 admin 28 Aug, 2014 23:34 213.91 Kb 2188 4320 RLS severity scoring.pdf admin 26 Aug, 2014 12:28 117.98 Kb 3158 4319 RLS.gif admin 26 Aug, 2014 12:27 22.51 Kb 17250
- NIH RLS Fact Sheet