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Vitamin D deficiency 2.5 X more likely in iron-deficient children – Dec 2018

Is there an association between vitamin D level and iron deficiency in children?

Arch Argent Pediatr. 2018 Dec 1;116(6):e736-e743. doi: 10.5546/aap.2018.eng.e736.
[Article in English, Spanish; Abstract available in Spanish from the publisher]
Kaymak Cihan M1,2, Ünver Korğalı E3.


INTRODUCTION:
Vitamin D (VitD) affects the erythropoiesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between maternal/child 25-OH VitD (25-OHD) levels and iron deficiency (ID) and anemia (IDA) in children aged 6 months-5 years.

POPULATION AND METHODS:
Between September 2014 and January 2016 children who were admitted to outpatient clinic were included to study. We excluded the children with acute or chronic infection, malnutrition, chronic disease and preterm birth history. Complete blood count, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, ferritin, 25-OHD levels were examined from children and their mothers. Iron and VitD supplementation during infancy and pregnancy and breastfeeding history were questioned.

RESULTS:
The study included totally 117 children. There were 67 children with ID/IDA [Group 1, mean age (years):2.05±1.24 (0.5-5)] and 50 normal children [Group 2, mean age (years): 1.87±1.12 (0.58-5)]. There were more VitD deficient children and mothers in Group 1 than in Group 2 (respectively, children 49.3 % vs. 20 % p=0.002; mothers 94 % vs.64 %, p=<0.001). There was a positive correlation between hemoglobin levels of children and maternal/child 25-OHD.The independent risk factors for IDA in children were longer exclusively breastfeeding time (odds ratio [OR], 0.35; 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.1550.789; p=0.011), shorter duration of regular iron supplementation during infancy and pregnancy (infancy: OR,1.69; 95 % CI 1.148-2.508; p=0.008. pregnancy: OR,1.39; 95 % 0,1.070-1.820; p=0.014) and lower maternal 25-OHD level (OR,1.16; 95 % 0,1.034-1.292; p=0.011).

CONCLUSIONS: Maternal/child VitD deficiency is associated with ID/IDA in children aged 6 months-5 years.

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