Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2016 May;12(5):274-89. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2016.37. Epub 2016 Apr 1.
- Zinc helps pregnancies – 14 percent fewer preterm births, etc. – Cochrane RCT Feb 2015
- Zinc and Vitamin D
- Vitamin D and Iodine are similar, and both are deficient and important to health
- Iodine added during pregnancy reduces preterm births, increases IQ. Etc.
- Iodine Deficiency During Pregnancy – many studies
- Overview Iron Supplements and Vitamin D
- Iron deficiency is a cause of Vitamin D deficiency also reviews other forms of Iron
- Pregnancy helped by Magnesium in many ways ignored by study on this page
- Pre-eclampsia inversely proportional to serum Magnesium – Oct 2014
Pregnancy category starts with
- see also
- Overview Pregnancy and vitamin D
- Number of articles in both categories of Pregnancy and:
23 ; Depression 17 ; Diabetes 39 ; Obesity 11 ; Hypertension 35 ; Breathing 29 ; Omega-3 28 ; Vitamin D Receptor 15
- All items in category Infant/Child
- breastfed 887 items as of Jan 2018
- Preeclampsia 825 items as of Jan 2018
- Pre-term 4710 items as of Dec 2018
- "polycystic ovary syndrome" OR PCOS 303 items as of Jan 2018
- Gestational Diabetes
- c-section OR "caesarean section" (various spellings) 802 items as of Aug 2018
- postpartum depression 208 items as of Aug 2018
- Search VitaminDiiki for MISCARRIAGE OR "Spontaneous abortion" 541 as of June 2018
- Search VitaminDWiki for "Assisted reproduction" 33 items as of Feb 2017
- Fertility and Sperm category listing has
102 items along with related searches
- (Stunting OR “low birth weight” OR LBW) 505 items as of Jan 2018
- Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D
- Ensure a healthy pregnancy and baby - take Vitamin D before conception
Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summaryProblem
Reduces Evidence 0. Chance of not conceiving 3.4 times Observe 1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe 2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 times RCT 3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT 4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe 5. Premature birth 2 times RCT 6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 times Observe Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 times RCT - Omega-3 7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT 8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis 9. Infant height, weight, head size
within normal limits
RCT 10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT 11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention 12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 times Observe 13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 times RCT 14. Good motor skills @ age 3 1.4 times Observe 15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT 16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT
RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial
- Fat-soluble vitamins critical for conception, pregnancy and breast feeding (pigs) – Sept 2019
- Preterm Births reduced by Omega-3, Zinc, and Vitamin D – Aug 2019
- Depression after childbirth 5 X less likely if good Omega-3 index – April 2019
- Infant Problem-Solving Skills Linked to Mother’s DHA Omega-3 Level During Pregnancy – April 2019
- Omega-3 during pregnancy and breastfeeding is recommended – May 2019
- Preterm Births decreased by Omega-3 (analysis of 184 countries) – April 2019
- Preterm Births - promising preventions – anti-oxidants, Vitamin D, Omega-3, Zinc, etc. – Jan 2019
- Omega-3 index of 5 greatly decreases the risk of an early preterm birth – Dec 2018
- Omega-3 added during pregnancy helps in many ways – Cochrane Review of RCTs Nov 2018
- Omega-3 helps preconception (in addition to pregnancy) – many studies
- More pregnancies and fewer abortions when Omega-3 was added (cows in this case) July 2018
- PCOS treated by a combination of Vitamin D and Omega-3 – RCT Oct 2018
- Omega-3 – fewer than 5 percent of adult women get the RDA – April 2018
- Omega-3, Vitamin D, Folic acid etc. during pregnancy and subsequent mental illness of child – March 2018
- Supplementation while pregnant and psychotic – 20 percent Omega-3, 6 percent Vitamin D – June 2016
- Importance of Vitamin D and fish rarely mentioned during midwife-led prenatal booking visits – July 2017
- Pre-term birth rate of pregnant smokers cut in half if take Omega-3 – RCT May 2017
- Gestational diabetes treated by Vitamin D plus Omega-3 – RCT Feb 2017
- Asthma reduced 31 percent when Omega-3 taken during pregnancy – RCT Dec 2016
- Preterm births strongly related to Vitamin D, Vitamin D Receptor, Iodine, Omega-3, etc
- Typical pregnancy is now 39 weeks – Omega-3 and Vitamin D might restore it to full 40 weeks
- Omega-3 supplementation during pregnancy reduce early pre-term births (save 1500 USD per child) – Aug 2016
- Rancid Omega-3 increased the odds of newborn mortality by 13 times (rats) – July 2016
- Preterm birth extended by 2 weeks with Omega-3 – Meta-analysis Nov 2015
- Stillbirth rate typically 1 in 200, perhaps only 1 in 800 with Omega-3
- Omega-3 helps pregnancy in many ways: preterm 26 percent less likely etc – review July 2012
- Pregnancy and infants healthier with Omega-3 supplementation
- Vitamin D, DHA, Folic, Iodine benefits during pregnancy – July 2012
Gernand AD1, Schulze KJ2, Stewart CP3, West KP Jr2, Christian P2.
- 1 Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, 110 Chandlee Laboratory, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.
- 2 Center for Human Nutrition, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.
- 3 Department of Nutrition, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.
Randomized controlled trials supplementing pregnant women with individual micronutrients included in metaanalyses
We did not identify a meta-analysis that met our criteria for vitamin B12 or selenium. We identified no individual studies for vitamin E, thiamin,
riboflavin, niacin or copper. IFA, iron and folic acid.
* RDA used for pregnant women aged 19–30 years as the referent group.
‡ One study gave a bolus dose (600,000 IU).
§ Only includes trials comparing groups with vitamin C to groups without vitamin C (does not include trials of vitamin C and vitamin E tested
∥ Only includes trials comparing groups with vitamin D to groups without vitamin D; four trials of vitamin D gave participants bolus doses (ranging
from 60,000 to 600,000 IU). Gernand et al.
¶ Three trials of iodine gave bolus injections (96–1600 mg).
#Only includes trials comparing groups with iron to groups without iron, does not include trials of iron and folic acid tested together.
Meta-analyses of RCTs supplementing pregnant women with micronutrients: pregnancy and early-life postnatal outcomes
Micronutrients, vitamins and minerals accessible from the diet, are essential for biologic activity. Micronutrient status varies widely throughout pregnancy and across populations. Women in low-income countries often enter pregnancy malnourished, and the demands of gestation can exacerbate micronutrient deficiencies with health consequences for the fetus.
Examples of efficacious single micronutrient interventions include
- folic acid to prevent neural tube defects,
- iodine to prevent cretinism,
- zinc to reduce risk of preterm birth, and
- Iron to reduce the risk of low birth weight.
Folic acid and vitamin D might also increase birth weight. While extensive mechanistic and association research links multiple antenatal micronutrients with plausible materno-fetal health advantages, hypothesized benefits have often been absent, minimal or unexpected in trials. These findings suggest a role for population context in determining health responses and filling extensive gaps in knowledge. Multiple micronutrient supplements reduce the risks of being born with low birth weight, small for gestational age or stillborn in undernourished settings, and justify micronutrient interventions with antenatal care. Measurable health effects of gestational micronutrient exposure might persist into childhood but few data exists on potential long-term benefits. In this Review, we discuss micronutrient intake recommendations, risks and consequences of deficiencies, and the effects of interventions with a particular emphasis on offspring.
PMID: 27032981 PMCID: PMC4927329 DOI: 10.1038/nrendo.2016.37
- All items in category Infant/Child