Non-Linear Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Hemoglobin in Korean Females: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2011.
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Han SS, Kim M, Kim H, Lee SM, Oh YJ, Lee JP, Kim S, Joo KW, Lim CS, Kim YS, Kim
Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
BACKGROUND: Anemia and vitamin D deficiency are both important health issues; however, the nature of the association between vitamin D and either hemoglobin or anemia remains unresolved in the general population.
METHODS: Data on 11,206 adults were obtained from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. A generalized additive model was used to examine the threshold level for relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and hemoglobin levels. A multivariate logistic regression for anemia was conducted according to 25(OH)D quintiles. All analyses were stratified according to sex and menstrual status.
RESULTS: The generalized additive model confirmed a threshold 25(OH)D level of 26.4 ng/mL (male, 27.4 ng/mL; premenopausal females, 11.8 ng/mL; postmenopausal females, 13.4 ng/mL). The threshold level affected the pattern of association between 25(OH)D and anemia risk: the odds ratio of the 1(st) quintile but not the 2(nd), 3(rd), and 4(th) quintiles were significantly different from the 5(th) quintile in both premenopausal and postmenopausal females, however there was no obvious trend in males.
CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study demonstrated a non-linear relationship with a threshold effect between serum 25(OH)D and hemoglobin levels in females. Further interventional studies are warranted to determine whether the appropriate level of hemoglobin can be achieved by the correction of vitamin D deficiency.
Increased chance of anemia
- Iron deficiency is a cause of Vitamin D deficiency
- Deficiencies of iron and vitamin D are interrelated in women – March 2013
- 5X more likely to be vitamin D deficient if anemic - Dec 2012
- Anemia 1.9X more likely in white children having lowish vitamin D – Jan 2014
- Search VitaminDWiki for ANEMIA 249 items as of April 2014
- Low iron in teenage girls is 2X more likely if low vitamin D – 2014
- Inflammation Anemia in Blacks 8X more likely if less than 20 ng of vitamin D – April 2015
- Vitamin D deficiency is associated with anemia: a cross-sectional study in healthy adults in the United States (260.3) FASEB Journal April 2014
vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with anemia in blacks (OR: 6.42; 95% CI: 1.88, 21.99), controlling for anemia covariates, but not in whites.
significantly associated with anemia of inflammation only (OR: 3.11; 95% CI: 1.08, 8.91)
- Effect of Vitamin D Replacement on Hemoglobin Concentration in Subjects with Concurrent Iron-Deficiency Anemia and Vitamin D Deficiency: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial
July 2014, injection of 600,000 IU of vitamin D3 without Iron did not help anemia (no surprse) behind $38 paywall