Lancet Oncol. 2008 Aug;9(8):803-7. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(08)70200-6.
Department of Environmental Medicine and New York University (NYU) Cancer Institute, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. xi.huang at nyumc.org
Oestrogen and family history are two of the most important risk factors for breast cancer. However, these risk factors cannot explain the differences in the incidence and recurrence of breast cancer between premenopausal and postmenopausal women. In this paper I propose that, in premenopausal women, an iron deficiency caused by menstruation stabilises hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha, which increases the formation of vascular endothelial growth factor. This mechanism results in premenopausal women being more susceptible to angiogenesis and, consequently, leads to a high recurrence of breast cancer. Conversely, increased concentrations of iron in postmenopausal women, as a result of menstrual cessation, contribute to a high incidence of breast cancer via oxidative-stress pathways. Although the focus of this Personal View is on iron, this by no means negates the roles of other known risk factors in breast-cancer development. Characterisation of the role of iron in breast cancer could potentially benefit patients by decreasing recurrence and incidence and increasing overall survival.
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Menses ==>reduce iron ==>liver not function as well ==> less processing of vitamin D by liver ==> reduced serum level of vitamin D
- Iron deficiency is a cause of Vitamin D deficiency
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- Overview Liver and vitamin D has the following chartHypothesis: Premenopausal Iron deficiency causes increased recurrence of breast cancer – 2008
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