Toggle Health Problems and D

Italian consensus of recommended Vitamin D, Omega-3, etc – Oct 2016

Nutrient Adult (Intake) Pregnancy (PRI) Breastfeeding (PRI)
Vitamin D 2.3 µg 15 µg 15 µg
170 mg 250 mg
(+ 100–200 mg)
250 mg
(+ 100–200 mg)
Iron 10.4 mg 27 mg 11 mg
Iodine 85–88 µg 200 µg (AI) 1 200 µg (AI) 1
Calcium 730 mg 1200 mg 1000 mg
Folic acid 305 µg 600 µg 500 µg

1 AI = adequate Intake. PRI = Population Reference Intakes


Consensus = Conservative
Much more Vitamin D is needed, example:
Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summary

0. Chance of not conceiving3.4 times Observe
1. Miscarriage 2.5 times Observe
2. Pre-eclampsia 3.6 timesRCT
3. Gestational Diabetes 3 times RCT
4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality 3.5 times Observe
5. Premature birth 2 times RCT
6. C-section - unplanned 1.6 timesObserve
     Stillbirth - OMEGA-3 4 timesRCT - Omega-3
7. Depression AFTER pregnancy 1.4 times RCT
8. Small for Gestational Age 1.6 times meta-analysis
9. Infant height, weight, head size
     within normal limits
10. Childhood Wheezing 1.3 times RCT
11. Additional child is Autistic 4 times Intervention
12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis 1.9 timesObserve
13. Preeclampsia in young adult 3.5 timesRCT
14. Good motor skills @ age 31.4 times Observe
15. Childhood Mite allergy 5 times RCT
16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits 2.5 times RCT

RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial

 Download the PDF from VitaminDWiki

In particular

  • Folic acid: there is need to supplement maternal diets during pregnancy, through food fortification (within proper diets) and via the use of supplements in the preconceptional period, in agreement with national and international guidelines.
  • Vitamin D: there is no homogeneous consensus on its recommended intakes [98]; in Italy, a recent consensus document published by the Societies of Pediatrics emphasizes the high prevalence of deficiency and the importance of prophylaxis also during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
  • Iron: even though there is a general agreement on the benefits of systematic supplementation in populations at high-risk of anemia during pregnancy, different countries provide different recommendations; in general, iron supplementation should be decided on the basis of individual clinical assessment.
  • Iodine: adequate intakes must be ensured throughout pregnancy, e.g., by using foods rich in iodine and iodized salt.
  • Calcium: a large proportion of the European (and Italian) fertile female population do not reach optimal values; moreover, particular attention should be paid to its bioavailability from different foods.
  • DHA: benefits during pregnancy and lactation are confirmed by the most recent studies; inadequate intakes are associated with low consumption of fish rich in omega-3.

Maternal Diet and Nutrient Requirements in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. An Italian Consensus Document

Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 629; doi:10.3390/nu8100629
Franca Marangoni 1,* , Irene Cetin 2, Elvira Verduci 3, Giuseppe Canzone 4, Marcello Giovannini 5, Paolo Scollo 6, Giovanni Corsello 7 and Andrea Poli 1

The importance of lifestyle and dietary habits during pregnancy and breastfeeding, for health of mothers and their offspring, is widely supported by the most recent scientific literature. The consumption of a varied and balanced diet from the preconceptional period is essential to ensure both maternal well-being and pregnancy outcomes. However, the risk of inadequate intakes of specific micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation is high even in the most industrialized countries. This particularly applies to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), iron, iodine, calcium, folic acid, and vitamin D, also in the Italian population. Moreover, the risk of not reaching the adequate nutrient supply is increased for selected groups of women of childbearing age: those following exclusion diets, underweight or overweight/obese, smokers, adolescents, mothers who have had multiple or close pregnancies, and those with previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes.

Attached files

ID Name Comment Uploaded Size Downloads
7200 Italian Consensus.pdf admin 19 Oct, 2016 258.50 Kb 772