|Nutrient||Adult (Intake)||Pregnancy (PRI)||Breastfeeding (PRI)|
|Vitamin D||2.3 µg||15 µg||15 µg|
|170 mg||250 mg |
(+ 100–200 mg)
|250 mg |
(+ 100–200 mg)
|Iron||10.4 mg||27 mg||11 mg|
|Iodine||85–88 µg||200 µg (AI) 1||200 µg (AI) 1|
|Calcium||730 mg||1200 mg||1000 mg|
|Folic acid||305 µg||600 µg||500 µg|
1 AI = adequate Intake. PRI = Population Reference Intakes
Consensus = Conservative
Much more Vitamin D is needed, example:
Healthy pregnancies need lots of vitamin D has the following summary
|0. Chance of not conceiving||3.4 times||Observe|
|1. Miscarriage||2.5 times||Observe|
|2. Pre-eclampsia||3.6 times||RCT|
|3. Gestational Diabetes||3 times||RCT|
|4. Good 2nd trimester sleep quality||3.5 times||Observe|
|5. Premature birth||2 times||RCT|
|6. C-section - unplanned||1.6 times||Observe|
|Stillbirth - OMEGA-3||4 times||RCT - Omega-3|
|7. Depression AFTER pregnancy||1.4 times||RCT|
|8. Small for Gestational Age||1.6 times||meta-analysis|
|9. Infant height, weight, head size |
within normal limits
|10. Childhood Wheezing||1.3 times||RCT|
|11. Additional child is Autistic||4 times||Intervention|
|12.Young adult Multiple Sclerosis||1.9 times||Observe|
|13. Preeclampsia in young adult||3.5 times||RCT|
|14. Good motor skills @ age 3||1.4 times||Observe|
|15. Childhood Mite allergy||5 times||RCT|
|16. Childhood Respiratory Tract visits||2.5 times||RCT|
RCT = Randomized Controlled Trial
- Folic acid: there is need to supplement maternal diets during pregnancy, through food fortification (within proper diets) and via the use of supplements in the preconceptional period, in agreement with national and international guidelines.
- Vitamin D: there is no homogeneous consensus on its recommended intakes ; in Italy, a recent consensus document published by the Societies of Pediatrics emphasizes the high prevalence of deficiency and the importance of prophylaxis also during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
- Iron: even though there is a general agreement on the benefits of systematic supplementation in populations at high-risk of anemia during pregnancy, different countries provide different recommendations; in general, iron supplementation should be decided on the basis of individual clinical assessment.
- Iodine: adequate intakes must be ensured throughout pregnancy, e.g., by using foods rich in iodine and iodized salt.
- Calcium: a large proportion of the European (and Italian) fertile female population do not reach optimal values; moreover, particular attention should be paid to its bioavailability from different foods.
- DHA: benefits during pregnancy and lactation are confirmed by the most recent studies; inadequate intakes are associated with low consumption of fish rich in omega-3.
Maternal Diet and Nutrient Requirements in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding. An Italian Consensus Document
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 629; doi:10.3390/nu8100629
Franca Marangoni 1,* , Irene Cetin 2, Elvira Verduci 3, Giuseppe Canzone 4, Marcello Giovannini 5, Paolo Scollo 6, Giovanni Corsello 7 and Andrea Poli 1
The importance of lifestyle and dietary habits during pregnancy and breastfeeding, for health of mothers and their offspring, is widely supported by the most recent scientific literature. The consumption of a varied and balanced diet from the preconceptional period is essential to ensure both maternal well-being and pregnancy outcomes. However, the risk of inadequate intakes of specific micronutrients in pregnancy and lactation is high even in the most industrialized countries. This particularly applies to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), iron, iodine, calcium, folic acid, and vitamin D, also in the Italian population. Moreover, the risk of not reaching the adequate nutrient supply is increased for selected groups of women of childbearing age: those following exclusion diets, underweight or overweight/obese, smokers, adolescents, mothers who have had multiple or close pregnancies, and those with previous unfavorable pregnancy outcomes.